- Process Occurrence Effect
According to McQuail (1991: 203) that effect is a process whereby individuals change to resist change as an effect on messages designed to influence attitude and behavioral knowledge.
Basically, the effect is a reaction to a certain stimulus. Thus, one can explain a close connection between media messages and audience reactions. From this it is expected to appear the expected individual behavior.
Effects in communication is a change that occurs in the recipient (communicant / audience) as a result of messages received either directly or through the mass media. There are three dimensions of mass communication effect, namely cognitive. Affective, and conative.
a. Cognitive Effects
Cognitive effects are the result that arise in the self communicant that is informative for him.
b. Affective Effects
This effect is higher than cognitive effect. The purpose of mass communication is not just to tell the audience to be aware of something, but more than that, after knowing the information it receives, the audience is expected to feel it. Factors affecting the affective effect of mass communication are:
It can be concluded that our response to a film, an advertisement, or an information, will be influenced by our emotional atmosphere.
The cognitive scheme is a script in our mind that explains the flow of events.
Individual presdisposition factors
This factor shows how far people feel involved with the characters featured in the mass media.
c. Behavioral Effects
Behavioral effects are the result that arise in audiences in the form of behavior, action or activity.
Stamm and Bowes in Nuruddin (2007: 206) describes the effects of two basic divisions: primary effects include exposure, attention, understanding, while secondary effects include changes in cognitive (change in knowledge and attitude), and behavioral changes (accept and choose).
Schramm in Arifin (1998: 40) describes the effect in communication is the change of opinion, attitude, or behavior of audiences, due to messages that touch it.
An effect is born through several stages of the process that occurs within the communicant. This process is an interpersonal communication that occurs to respond to stimulus. Bulaeng (2002: 53) explains if the stimulus received from the communicator to the communicant will go through the process of recognition. At this stage the stimulus will be recognized by the communicant who then proceeded to the stage of reasoning and feeling. This stage of the stimulus is reasoning that is a process to test whether the stimulus is rational to accept or not. This process involves a sense of communicant in choosing whether the stimulus is appropriate and accepted by himself. If the stimulus is suitable then the effect will arise which is a form of feedback (feedback) on the given stimulus.