BUILDING CAMBODIA WHILE BUILDING EOS

in eos •  9 months ago

chesta khmer.png

EOSKh is proud to announce our Block Producer Candidacy. We are posting our philosophical and aspirational roadmap here. Details of our team, contacts, other information, as well as the content below, can be found on our website, EOSKh.com.

EOSKH MISSION

Society at Large

  • We will increase awareness of EOS among consumers and small business owners in the ASEAN countries.
  • We will expand the number of organisations using EOS in their apps and respective markets.
  • We will support EOS dApp developers in creating secure applications and a more trustworthy web.
  • We will encourage implementation and deployment of “leapfrog” technologies in favor of transparent, immutable, scalable, inclusive EOS blockchain based services.

EOS Community

  • We listen to the EOS community and keep an open ear to the spirit of the community and its needs via Telegram, Steemit, and in-person Meetups.
  • We empower EOS users and earnestly work with them to bring the best and most suitable applications to Phnom Penh.

EOSKH COMMITMENT

EOSKh pledges to follow the EOS Constitution, as approved and amended by the official consensus. We pledge to adhere to the Block Producer Agreement and to follow its guidelines for Block Producer ethics and behavior. We pledge to abide by all local regulations and norms for our legal jurisdiction, the Kingdom of Cambodia. In any cases where adherence to EOS standards and local laws are in conflict, we will inform the EOS community and take proper action.

In addition, we will provide assistance to those trying to develop and launch dApps, as we believe that dApps are essential to a healthy blockchain. We will not show bias or favoritism for or against any dApps. In rare instances in which a particular dApp may display buggy code which would harm the ecosystem as a whole, we will attempt to locate and inform the dApp provider and fellow Block Producers and assist in rectifying the error.

We have no interest, intent, or desire to “buy” votes. EOSKh pledges not to attempt to sway voters in any manner other than in our display of technical confidence and excellence in service to the EOS Blockchain.

Also as a block producer we have no particular stance on user identity. Rather, we believe that each dApp built on the EOS platform should set Its own considered policies concerning identity. To the extent possible we will work with such dApps to enforce their policies.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

We are EOSKh.

We are a Block Producer candidate located in Phnom Penh and committed to participating in a robust EOS blockchain. We are well situated to add benefit to the EOS ecosystem, as well as to use the EOS ecosystem to bring benefit to our society. We want to help our country and society at large and we believe fostering EOS, the best tool currently available, will help achieve our goals. We want to promote EOS distributed ledger technology and EOS tokens in Cambodia.

We see ourselves in a stewardship position of very high trust. After all, the block producers are counted on, not just to run a chain and produce blocks, but counted on to provide the infrastructure that is the foundation of a decentralized future. We are honored by the faith placed in us by the EOS community and we will always act independently to add to the distribution, and not be improperly influenced by external forces.

BUILDING TRUST

Today blockchain and digital currency are seen as luxuries, with the majority of trading and investment happening in richer countries. Those markets already have established financial services (which EOS complements), but the biggest benefits will accrue to users in emerging markets, where digital currency can solve real world problems. To leapfrog the current financial systems is a daunting goal, but obtainable. We just need to lower barriers of adoption.

We hope to quickly introduce “distributed applications” (dApps) and smart contracts to show people the utility and stability of EOS. As with any new technology, and especially for matters related to finance, it takes time for people to develop trust. Practical applications will be very important in developing a community of users.

Blockchain technology is ideal for engaging the internet-savvy youth of the country. Because people between 15 and 30 years old make up a third of the 15.6 million population, Cambodia is currently enjoying a demographic bonus period -- the labor force is growing more rapidly than the population that is dependent on it. About 300,000 young Cambodians enter the labor market every year, and they are open to learning new ways of doing things. Equipping young people with quality education and skills is crucial the reap the most rewards for the country and for EOS.

BOOTSTRAPPING CRITICAL MASS

We plan on building ventures to create positive feedback loops for usage and trust leading to critical mass. We are working with SME vendors, entrepreneurs, and service providers to educate and assist in overcoming technical hurdles in accepting digital currency. There should be an exponential growth in confidence in EOS as people see others using EOS and EOS dApps.

Our official currency is the riel but riels and dollars are used interchangeably in urban areas. In border areas we also use Thai baht or the Vietnamese dong. Introducing a new “currency” system is not a shock to most people and if it solves existing problems and has low barriers for access it is likely to be adopted. Our lack of strong identification with our fiat currency makes us a greenfield ready for the adoption of EOS.

We encourage the merchants to hold the EOS tokens or bring new merchants into the ecosystem. We do not expect adoption for the sake of innovation but we do expect that the benefits of ease of use, fast transactions, and lack of fees will compare favorably with other electronic payments and be seen as a safe alternative to cash.

OFFICIAL ACCEPTANCE

Cambodia has come a long way in a short time. The restoration of peace and security, large public and private capital inflows, economic openness, and stable macroeconomic conditions have all contributed to fast economic growth and a significant reduction in the poverty rate. We have enjoyed strong economic growth rates over the past decade, with an average GDP growth of 8.2% between 2000-2010, and 7.4% from 2011-2013. Between 1992 and 2016 our GDP per capita has grown over 600%.

Our country is well positioned to meet the challenge of access. Cambodia has a high rate of mobile phone ownership (in 2016, 97% in urban areas, 95% in rural areas), and good rate of smartphone ownership (48% own at least one smartphone). More than 10.7 million mobile phones had internet connection in 2017, a 33.77 percent increase year-on-year. The Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications has set a goal to reach total broadband coverage in urban areas by 2020, with at least 70 percent coverage in rural areas so that at least 80 percent of Cambodians to have internet access within the next two years.

Getting Distributed Ledger technology widely and officially accepted may be easier here than in some other countries: the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications has announced plans to transform the country into a digital economy in which most citizens will be adept at using digital tools and able to use advanced technology to enhance their personal and professional lives by 2023. (Khmer Times, http://www.khmertimeskh.com/50112147/cambodia-to-be-a-digital-economy-by-2023/)

MOVING FORWARD

We always want to improve and we look forward to hearing from our colleagues in other markets who may have ideas that we can adopt to improve the health of the chain and provide service to our country and the EOS community.

PUBLIC GOODS

FUNDING PUBLIC GOODS

As a Block producer we will earn a yet undetermined share of EOS inflation block rewards to cover operating expenses. After reasonable operation expenses are settled there is a possibility of a surplus. EOSKh values block rewards as a means to spur development and increase value of the public good. We will use surplus rewards to fund our outreach efforts. As these outreach activities generate income, this income will be reinvested into the development fund.

ANNUAL REPORT

After the first year, we plan to publish an annual report of key activities we have undertaken. This report will discuss which initiatives have proved most successful, and where possible, information packages on how these projects can be replicated in other communities. We will also cover the programs that do not return desired results with possible explanations as to why they were not entirely successful.

ENGAGEMENT WITH THE EOS COMMUNITY

We will listen to the EOS community and keep an open ear to the spirit of the community and its needs. Input for new initiatives and suggestions for ways to improve our efforts will always be welcome. We are exploring collaborative models now.

EDUCATION

UNIVERSITY

The big picture is to form a market for the creation and deployment of distributed apps running on top of a blockchain. The skill set to do this is absent now, and we expect massive demand from next year. With this in mind, we wish to take advantage of the strength of youth in the nation. We aim to recruit the best students, train them in next-generation blockchain technology, and help them disperse that knowledge.

We will reach out to students in the country, and applications will be open for the program. The selection of recruits will be based on a criteria of intellect and aptitude, the ability to network and discuss ideas with people, as well as an interview regarding the personal goals of the candidates. The selection process will be quite rigorous and thorough as we hope to ensure that these students, after being trained, will have the passion to allow the blockchain skill set to take off and have real impact.

Initially, selected students will be sponsored and sent to Postech in Korea for the BlockChain Masters program, which is a newly developed curriculum. This first batch of students will eventually be the teachers for the next few batches of students.

To further encourage and disperse knowledge of the technology, Blockchain focused programs at a few Khmer universities will be established. We plan to establish a Chair in Distributed Ledger Technologies intersecting with the Business, Law, and Computer Science departments. Currently, we are in discussion with government ministries to create a National EOS Blockchain Training Center from the EOSKh community fund. In small cities, small-scale blockchain training centers will be set up.

LOCAL SCHOOLS

TEACHING

We will survey to assess how best to integrate with High school programs. As appropriate, we will sponsor training for instructors for coding smart contracts and basic distributed ledger technologies. Teacher involvement is key.

Our local education efforts will also coordinate with our makerspace to provide access and support for younger students and those new to developing. We hope to have a series of weekend workshops, student hackathons, and after school programs. The assistance of the local schools will help determine details such as the frequency, eligibility, and duration of the various programs.

ESSAY CONTESTS

We plan to hold frequent essay contests on subjects related to dApps, EOS, and distributed ledger technologies, open to all students who have passed one of our programs. The top essays will be printed and distributed. The winners will receive prizes in EOS tokens. We will work with the schools to finalize details for scoring metrics, publicity, and selection of judges.

CODING CONTESTS

We will also hold coding contests for proof of concept dApps that run on EOS, open to all students who have passed one of our programs. The winners will receive prizes in EOS tokens and we will help the best be further developed and shared on EOS. We will work with the schools to finalize details for scoring metrics, publicity, and selection of judges.

CODING OPPORTUNITIES

The makerspace incubation for local students will have some interesting projects. High School and University students alike will have a chance to work on projects such as:

  • A KYC dApp
  • A Logistics/end to end shipping dApp
  • A Land title registry using DLT
  • A Motorcycle or large purchase escrow dApp

BOOTCAMP

For selected students, we will host bootcamps locally and overseas.

LOCAL BOOTCAMP

Local Bootcamps will be primarily for High School age students and will require much less background in coding. The language of Instruction will be English with Khmer supplementation.

Students will be selected to participate based on a simple application process that will require a short essay on why these students are interested in the bootcamp, and how learning these skills would benefit them and their respective communities. Teacher recommendations will also be considered. The goal for the local camps is not to select just students that are already ahead in the area, but rather, to recruit those with passion and willingness to learn.

These Bootcamps will ideally be 2 days long, and held over weekends quarterly. The topics will be quite broad and basic, as there will ideally be at least 100 students at one camp. The proposed curriculum will include the following:

  • Introduction To Distributed Ledger Technologies (DLT)
  • Overview Of Cryptography Public/Private Keys
  • The State And Future Of Blockchain
  • Overview Of EOS
  • Introduction To dApps
  • Introduction To Smart Contracts

Once successful in the first Bootcamp, there will be an advanced Bootcamp for a small number of participants by invitation only. This will be more specific, and catered to those that truly see themselves with a future in studying and learning the technology. This will take place over several days, and be held twice a year. In this camp students would get both theoretical and practical experience.

OVERSEAS BOOTCAMP

Overseas Bootcamps will be primarily for college age and post graduate students and will require a firm background in coding. The first candidates to be contacted for the opportunity would be students recommended by professors in related studies. The Overseas Bootcamp selection process would also be more rigorous, and include an interview, in order to identify those that are truly passionate about learning the material. There would only be 15-20 participants for this annual opportunity.

We are working with companies in Korea to create an EOS oriented, five week English language dApp training course. A similar course is to follow, focusing on Smart Contracts. The courses will be a much more technical look at the subjects covered in the Local Bootcamp. These courses requires students to participate in hands-on development projects. At the end of the course they will present their dApp projects and undergo an exit interview.

BUSINESS INCUBATION

OVERVIEW

To interface between academia and industry, and to build a sense of mentorship in the EOS community, we are setting up an incubator program. This will be a hybrid incubator, combining virtual and on-premise activities, to promote Public Goods by fostering the development of dApps and dApp creators. Although our incubation program will be run as a nonprofit cooperative, each project developed will commit an equity share to the incubator to fund ongoing operations of the space.

Business incubation will aid in helping with:

  • Creation of new dApp developer opportunities
  • Fostering an EOS entrepreneurial climate
  • Commercializing Distributed Ledger Technologies
  • Diversifying our local economy
  • Identifying potential opportunities.

Our incubator will provide services which help dApp developers get through initial hurdles in starting up a business. These hurdles include space, accounting, computer services and other prerequisites to running the business.

SPACES

We will have a 2 tier incubation program.

MAKERSPACE

To allow creativity to blossom and develop ideas not yet envisioned, our first tier of the Incubator will be a makerspace open to all and geared towards individuals. Members of the makerspace will have access to the space for some time, along with support resources. A path to entering the business incubation is envisioned. These members will have access to:

  • High-speed Internet access
  • Dedicated development computers
  • Advice on dApp design and DLT integration
  • Links to strategic EOS partners, meetups, and Networking activities
  • Links to higher education resources

The Makerspace will also coordinate with our Local Education efforts to provide access and support for younger students, and for those new to developing. We hope to have a series of weekend workshops, student hackathons, and after school programs.

BUSINESS INCUBATOR

This space is geared toward start-ups and new dApp launches. It is to be a business incubation space to which developers will have to apply for acceptance. In addition to the services offered to the makerspace members, the business incubation will offer:

  • Help with business basics
  • Help with accounting/financial management
  • Advice on overcoming hurdles to bank loans and attracting investment
  • Help with regulatory compliance
  • The business incubator will set graduation requirements by development benchmarks to be determined after one year of operation.
  • Virtual clients may be too remote to participate on site, but will receive counseling and other assistance electronically.

GOVERNMENT

Advising a sovereign government is a daunting task. Our long-term goal is to leverage EOS technologies to help the Cambodian government follow and surpass the model of Estonia.

Rather than arrogantly telling bureaucrats what they should be doing -- and possibly being rebuffed -- we are taking a gentler approach: Identify, Create, and Share.

IDENTIFY

There are many dApps and blockchain applications envisioned and in use globally. By examining these through our local experience we have identified needs our government has, as well as projects that would most benefit from government backing. A short, non-definitive list of projects that meet one or both of those requirements includes:

  • National Bank of Cambodia Interface for Exchange Services
  • Oracle Services and Web Accessible Digital Registries for
  • Health And Welfare
  • Pensions
  • Land Titles
  • Digital Currency
  • Decentralized Purchasing / Logistics / Inventory Control Systems
  • Voting Systems

CREATE

Clearly, some of these projects are more urgent, while others are much easier to build and implement. We ask our Incubator developers and students to make suggestions and to spend at least part of their time developing one or more of these projects to prototype.

SHARE

When a prototype is completed we research to correctly identify which targets to approach and accompany the developer or their representative to the appropropriate government office. The prototype is handed over with an explanation of what the project is and who it will help. We talk through what would be required for a full deployment. Often there is a shortage of trained manpower, so our Incubator keeps space always available for technocrats working in government who are legitimately motivated to further develop the project -- often with the original team.

For projects that can not be shared as a prototype, we try to educate and lobby.

MEDICAL CARE: AN EXAMPLE

Distributed ledger technology will transform many areas, and some of those which we are familiar with and passionate about. Foremost among these are preventative healthcare and disease eradication. We are encouraging developers to look at how best to create a secure medical record sharing system for rural areas to give access to under-treated villages and dApps to allow disease tracking for rapid response.

NEEDED PROJECTS

GROWING THE EOS ECOSYSTEM

EOS has been called many things and it is difficult to define such a paradigm-breaking, ground-covering project using current terminology. However, first and foremost, EOS is an operating system. As an operating system, its success and widespread adoption will require several specific focuses, and among these the most important are

  • dApp creation;
  • Business oriented use models; and,
  • Oracle functions.

THE CREATION OF DISTRIBUTED APPLICATIONS

An operating system is only useful when there are applications to run on it. We want to see a dApp store as simple and easy to use as Google Play or the iOS App store. Furthermore, the store needs to be populated by a multitude of dApps. The store must have a customer rating process and be trustworthy. When such a project is launched we will work with the creators to localize it for the Khmer market.

Some dApps we hope to see include games, a social media platform, and a KYC dApp that can be used as identification.

BUSINESS ORIENTED USE MODELS

Fundamentally a business who receives EOS tokens can hold, convert, or spend.
In the beginning, most businesses will look at tokens as either speculative investments or as something that needs to be converted to fiat. The EOS community needs to be looking for opportunities to help businesses do things other than conversion to fiat. Leaving tokens in a wallet is unsatisfactory but dApps and programs that allow businesses to earn on staked tokens will do much to convince Businesses to hold the tokens. Chintai is one solution that looks promising but surely as the ecosystem grows, other opportunities and unmet needs will appear.

To meet the desire of businesses to convert their tokens, trustworthy exchanges need to be recognized, especially those that have Khmer language capabilities. It would be excellent if we can convince the National Bank Of Cambodia to put in place interfaces for exchange services. Local Cambodian banks will also need to be able to talk to the exchanges.

Setting up links and directories of B2B vendors will help to increase the rate of spend but to really make the corporate user base grow, smart contracts need to be made easy and ubiquitous. EOSKh will work to build a library of smart contracts, both general purpose contracts as well as those specific to the needs of local users. The purpose of the library is to provide templates with Khmer translation so that companies do not have to look at code more than they want to. We will also suggest to some teams working in our Incubator to focus on UI/UX to make interfaces for the contract templates so that executing a simple contract can be a turnkey experience.

ORACLES

NEED

Because everything on the blockchain is verified, people have a reasonable strong faith in the system and in the smart contracts running on it. However, as more smart contracts come into use, a major weakness becomes apparent, smart contracts rely on key external resources like off-chain data and APIs.

Smart contracts require that predefined conditions are met in order to execute. When the conditions are “known” to the blockchain, there is no trouble. However, Blockchains cannot access data not already known to the system. When events that trigger the contract take place off chain, the states of these events must somehow be noted in the blockchain in a speedy, secure, and trusted manner. An Oracle is a third party data feed that finds and verifies real-world events, and notes these external values to the blockchain.

TYPES OF ORACLES

Oracles can be categorized by their primary function.

ora.png

One Oracle may provide multiple functions but most simply put:

  • Inbound Oracles acquire data from the external world;
  • Outbound Oracles provide the ability to send data to the outside world;
  • Software Oracles retrieve data from online sources, like company websites; and,
  • Hardware Oracles collect information directly from the physical world: e.g., IoT input, RFID sensors, road sensors.

For example, a Software Inbound Oracle may send data to the blockchain concerning prices published in a trade journal and a Hardware Outbound Oracle may respond to a smart contract to trigger lights and refrigeration at a factory.

In cases when using only one source of information could be unreliable, multiple Oracles might be used, applying an implemented rating system, or a combination of different Oracles might be used where a ratio (such as 50%+1 or ⅔) could determine the outcome of an event. For example, currency prices may appear with variation on different exchanges.

PROBLEMS

ADDED COMPLEXITY

Smart contracts nominally between two parties may actually require one or more oracles to sign the smart contract as well. Selling the idea of smart contracts as a solution to multiple intermediaries becomes more difficult when oracles -- additional third party services, are added to the contract.

TRUST

Oracles are not part of the blockchain consensus mechanism but for the systems to work, people need to trust these sources of information. Providing smart contracts with trusted information is crucial because if mistakes are entered in the blockchain there are no easy corrections.

SPEED

In cases of smart contracts relying on a software oracle (either inbound or outbound), as well as in cases of reliance on hardware outbound oracles, speed of process is unlikely to be enough of an issue to disrupt or delay the execution of a smart contract. However, hardware inbound oracles are likely to be a serious obstacle for the next few years. For example, Government records of identification and property title are poorly digitized, not collected centrally, and often not accessible from the web.

SOLUTIONS

With need comes opportunities. There is a need for many oracles in the public space -- and perhaps even an EOS community-run ratings agency. Just as a Block Producer should not be an arbiter, it looks as though our block producer candidacy means our being involved with oracle operations may bring a perceived conflict of interest. Because of that, we will advise and assist anyone wishing to set up Oracles in Cambodia only until they can function properly as part of the EOS ecosystem, after which we will maintain an arms length relationship.

In many places the government acts as an Oracle by creating and digitizing documentation. We envision a similar role for our government. Despite keeping distance from corporate oracles, we will work diligently to help the government of Cambodia set up programs to:

  • Improve data capture;
  • Digitize existing records;
  • Build central databases not accessible from the web; and,
  • Secure read-only snapshots of the databases that are web accessible.

Eventually we envision government oracles offering online access to registries for Customs Services, Health and Welfare, Pensions, Land Titles, and Taxes, among others.

LOCAL OUTREACH STRATEGIES

loc.png

EMPLOYEES

For the EOS ecosystem to reach critical mass locally, it is imperative to get tokens in circulation as quickly as possible. To that end, a percentage of our employee salaries will be paid in EOS tokens once block production has begun.

Some steps need to occur before this goes live:

  1. A wallet or multiple wallets should be agreed upon by staff and management;
  2. Similarly, trustworthy exchanges for EOS conversion should be identified and recommended to employees;
  3. EOSKh can hold tokens for employees for up to three months at employee’s request in case of no adequate smartphone, or alternatively we may provide appropriate smartphones. At the end of that period, if the employee has not made effort to collect the tokens, EOSKh will donate the tokens to a charity nominated by the employee or the tokens will be burned. (NB, we don’t envision this ever occurring.);
  4. Identify or create and share a free wallet and useful dApps for local merchants to accept and spend EOS payments;
  5. Since regular remittances to parents are a feature of life in Cambodia, we will put kits together to help employees educate family members about the process, so funds can be shared to countryside. These kits will include complete education packets so family members can not only receive EOS, but also bring in their neighbors and friends, and so build out the ecosystem.
  6. Frequent charitable donations are also part of life. Together with the employees, we will identify, approach, and enroll the charities (including temples, shrines, and schools) that the employees nominate;
  7. When we have at least six months experience in this Salary project, we plan to collect all associated data and materials and make a program that can be shared with and adapted by block producers in other countries.

SME

Giving employees tokens will only show results if they can use the tokens. Savvy employees will already know how to use EOS online, but for our purposes, the tokens are best spent in the community where they will act as enticement to new users.

While it may be difficult at first, repeated community outreach to educate and assist in overcoming technical hurdles and “fear of the new” will pay off.

The steps we foresee:

  1. Our staff will create a voluntary “vendor outreach committee” to handle this process. Members will be chosen on their fervor in spreading EOS and their ability to communicate clearly.
  2. Committee members who approach vendors, entrepreneurs, or service providers must be able to answer the question, “Why are you doing this if you don’t make money from it? What’s in it for you?”. The answer is, “we consider it part of our corporate social responsibility. Our commitment as we establish this company is to make sure that the community will also benefit. One of the benefits we are committed to is sharing our expertise in emerging technologies so the community and the entire country can benefit from it.”
  3. To identify and prioritise which vendors to approach first there are three criteria:
  • Is there a prior relationship? E.g., The woman with the lort cha cart downstairs is our office manager’s aunt;
  • Who is close and will benefit from our employee foot traffic? E.g., the downstairs canteen, the local coffee kiosk, food carts, the corner stationaire.;
  • Have a significant number of staff identified that vendor as a spot they frequent often? E.g., the karaoke bar a short ride from the office;
  1. Once a pool of vendors is selected, the committee will canvas the group and survey interest. Based on their levels of interest there will be follow up. For success in this first round, vendors must at least be quite willing to participate in EOS -- if not eager!
  2. One message that the committee needs to share is, “You can convert, hold, or spend your tokens. If you want to spend them, introduce us to your suppliers and we will help them set up for acceptance as well.”
  3. Once a dozen or so vendors have signed up, we will share a regularly updated list of accepting merchants to help build the network of users.
  4. We are considering offering to set-up only one EOS vendor of each business type in the area for a set term so they would benefit from a semi-monopoly. However, we will only do this if the committee cannot sign merchants through other means. We expect the committee to develop and try various strategies to convince merchants to participate.
  5. Identify or create and share a free wallet and useful dApps for local merchants to accept and spend EOS payments.
  6. The committee will designate one or more employees to be the local merchant liaison to assist setting up exchange access and educate vendor staff, as well as troubleshoot problems.

After a few months of success, the committee will undertake the following steps:

  1. Using introductions from participants find larger suppliers interested in B2B EOS transactions.
  2. Help participants draft smart contracts for B2B transactions and share boilerplate contracts for the other vendors.
  3. Hold quarterly community meetings, or “EOS parties”, at places like the local wet/dry/night/wholesale markets.
  4. When we have at least six months experience in this Vendor project, we plan to collect all associated data and materials and make a program that can be shared with and adapted by block producers in other countries.

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“Aim above morality. Be not simply good, be good for something.”
— Henry David Thoreau

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