Basic common sense analysis of fiber optic transceivers

in #electronics4 months ago

Optical fiber transceivers (https://www.easybom.com/c/optoelectronics/fiber-optics-transceiver-modules) are indispensable devices in network data transmission. So what are fiber optic transceivers, what are the components of fiber optic transceivers, and what role do fiber optic transceivers play in the process of data transmission?

The optical fiber transceiver includes three basic functional modules: photoelectric medium conversion chip, optical signal interface (optical transceiver integrated module), and electrical signal interface (RJ45). If equipped with a network management function, it also includes a network management information processing unit. An optical fiber transceiver is an Ethernet transmission media conversion unit that interchanges short-distance twisted-pair electrical signals and long-distance optical signals. It is also called a fiber converter in many places. The product is generally used in the actual network environment where the Ethernet cable cannot cover and must use optical fiber to extend the transmission distance, and is usually located in the access layer application of the broadband metropolitan area network; at the same time, it helps to connect the last mile of optical fiber to the metropolitan area. It also plays a huge role on the Internet and beyond.

In some large-scale enterprises, optical fibers are directly used as the transmission medium to establish the backbone network during network construction, while the transmission medium of the internal local area network is generally copper wire. How to connect the local area network with the optical fiber backbone network? This requires conversion between different ports, different lines, and different fibers to ensure link quality. The emergence of fiber optic transceivers converts twisted pair electrical signals and optical signals to each other, ensuring smooth transmission of data packets between the two networks, and at the same time extending the transmission distance limitations of the network from 100 meters of copper wires to more than 100 kilometers ( single-mode fiber).

What are the basic features of fiber optic transceivers:

  1. Completely transparent to network protocols.

  2. Provide ultra-low latency data transmission.

  3. Support a wide operating temperature range.

  4. Use a dedicated ASIC chip to realize wire-speed data forwarding. Programmable ASIC integrates multiple functions into one chip and has the advantages of simple design, high reliability, and low power consumption, which can enable the device to obtain higher performance and lower cost.

  5. The network management equipment can provide functions such as network diagnosis, upgrade, status report, abnormal situation report, and control, and can provide complete operation log and alarm log.

  6. Rack-type equipment can provide hot-swappable functions for easy maintenance and uninterrupted upgrades.

  7. Support complete transmission distance (0~120km).

  8. Most of the equipment adopts a 1+1 power supply design, supports ultra-wide power supply voltage, and realizes power protection and automatic switching.

Classification of fiber optic transceivers:

There are many types of optical fiber transceivers, and their types also change accordingly according to different classification methods.

According to the nature of the optical fiber, it can be divided into multi-mode optical fiber transceivers and single-mode optical fiber transceivers. Due to the different optical fibers used, the distances that the transceivers can transmit are also different. The general transmission distance of multi-mode transceivers is between 2 kilometers and 5 kilometers, while the range covered by single-mode transceivers can be from 20 kilometers to 120 kilometers;

According to the required optical fiber, it can be divided into single-fiber optical fiber transceiver: the received and sent data is transmitted on one optical fiber; dual-fiber optical fiber transceiver: the received and sent data is transmitted on a pair of optical fibers.

According to the working level/rate, it can be divided into single 10M, 100M fiber optic transceivers, 10/100M adaptive fiber optic transceivers, and 1000M fiber optic transceivers. According to the structure, it can be divided into desktop (stand-alone) fiber optic transceivers and rack-mounted fiber optic transceivers. The desktop fiber optic transceiver is suitable for a single user, such as the uplink of a single switch in the corridor. Rack-type (modular) fiber optic transceivers are suitable for multi-user aggregation. For example, the central computer room of a community must meet the uplink of all switches in the community.

According to the network management, it can be divided into network-managed fiber optic transceivers and unmanaged fiber-optic transceivers.

According to the management type, it can be divided into, unmanaged Ethernet fiber optic transceiver: plug and play, set the working mode of the electrical port through the hardware DIP switch. Managed Ethernet Optical Transceiver: Supports carrier-class network management

According to the type of power supply, it can be divided into built-in power optical fiber transceivers: the built-in switching power supply is a carrier-grade power supply; external power supply optical fiber transceivers: external transformer power supplies are mostly used in civil equipment. The advantage of the former is that it can support an ultra-wide power supply voltage, better achieve voltage regulation, filtering, and equipment power protection, and reduce external failure points caused by mechanical contact; the latter has the advantage of small size and cheap equipment.

According to the working mode, the full-duplex mode means that when the transmission and reception of data are split and transmitted by two different transmission lines, both parties of the communication can send and receive operations at the same time. Such transmission The mode is full-duplex. The full-duplex mode does not need to switch the direction, so there is no time delay caused by the switching operation; the half-duplex mode (half-duplex) refers to using the same transmission line for both reception and transmission, although Data can be transmitted in two directions, but both parties cannot send and receive data at the same time. This transmission method is half-duplex. When the half-duplex mode is adopted, the transmitter and receiver at each end of the communication system are transferred to the communication line through the receiving/transmitting switch to switch directions, so a time delay will occur.

Summarized by Easybom (https://www.easybom.com).

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