Globalization & its impact on education
Globalization – described as a structural phenomenon of increasing interdependence among various parts of the world, for which the effects of an action feel at a distance has produced a variety of economic, cultural, and social changes that have shaped the world over the past 50 years. Without doubt this process was favoured by development and pervasiveness of digital technologies that make the communications faster and the information more easily sharable. Globalization has had a relevant impact also in the educational field: the convergence of models of educational organizations, the internationalization of key competencies definition and the diffusion of large-scale assessment of student's performance (PISA-OECD), are only a few of more relevant aspects of this process. This paper aims to explore the main features of globalization in education with a particular focus on role played by the new information and communication technologies (ICT). For this purpose will be used different approaches and heterogenic sources (national and international statistics and laws) and will be made a large review of sociological literature on these topics. In a globalized world characterized by a convergence culture, school systems should work in order to integrate ICT in ordinary learning processes, that means: to give new competencies and skills, to experiment new didactic models based on social media and web 2.0 tools, to contribute to the construction of a new digital literacy directed at the critical uses of digital media, in order to understand how the technologies work, and how they may affect our global life.
Globalization is an important development that changed deeply the world in modern history. It is seen that a new era starts and nations face huge changes in their social, economic and cultural ways, and it is obvious that it comes into our society new concepts and values and they carry new problems and perspectives for the nations in the process of globalization. In global world, information society is another important concept, it needs creative individuals, and governments should only train in school the individuals tomadopt the new values and developing student‟s ability to acquire, and use knowledge gains importance in the process of globalization. However, Learners can develop their critical thinking skills, obtain democratic values and ethics and apply their knowledge independently in an effectively designed teaching-learning environment. Additionally, future universities and other institutions are not thought only for the young, they are expected to become more open to people of all ages who wish to further their education, this is inevitable in the globalized world
2.Globalization and Education
Globalization has a close relation with education. As education has an important place in shaping a society, globalization has to be connected with education and the global activities have a deep impact on it. Globalization of the world economies is leading to increase emphasis on internationalization of the subjects included in a course of study in school. It also creates the opportunities for new partnerships in research and teaching with agencies and institutions across the world. Globalization is one of most powerful worldwide forces that are transforming the basis of business competition, paradoxically harkening an era in which small, local communities of practice may lead to a prominent structural form. Communities of practice impeach organizations to build, share and apply deeply of competence required to compete in a knowledge-based global economy.
In every area, humanity lives an increase and rapid change. New challenges force social, economic and cultural values. In the field of education a lot of changes are expected duties of schools is to ameliorate the individual’s appropriateness with the concept of globalization that changes traditional structure of education, which is one of the main rapid changes today in universities and other institutions that are redoubling their efforts to respond to social change. They have to implement society’s expectations.
Gordon outlines the importance of higher education in the learning society by attributing the report of the National Committee of Inquiry into Higher Education as follows:
“Higher education is principal to the social, economic and cultural health of the nation . It will contribute not only through the intellectual development of students and by preparing them for work, but also by adding to the world’s store of knowledge and understanding,..”
In this quotation, Gordon said that Higher Education is very important in different domains and it contributes in the promotion of student s‟ knowledge; and helping them to integrate in job fields.
In the future universities and other institutions are not thought only for the young. People of all ages who wish to further their education, these universities and institutions are expected to become open to them. Universities and other institutions will be open to anyone who has acquired the motivation to learn and the ability to notice issues through social experience or involvement in volunteer and other activities. Besides, the increase in the number of student, both part-time and full-time, with greater depth is expected and this is thought to lead to the formation of an academic environment. Graduate study is also likely to become more available to nonacademic members of society. As higher education is an investment in human progress and prosperity, during fast social and economic change, it is especially important that universities and other institutions of higher education consider their contribution to society from abroad long- term perspective.( Ministry of Education, Science, Sport and Culture,1995)
The global education system has many goals in common for every country. The aims and importance of global education can be sated as follows:
-Let those who participates in educational process obtains skills of new cultures.
-Develop the ability of distinguishing intercultural differences.
-Aiding the people for criticizing events from global perspective.
-Explain how different cultures impact the activities of organizations.
-Help students realize how attitudes are shaped and how they influence the behaviours.
-The language and harmony skills of the managers who will work in different cultures should be developed .
-Provide the ability of working together with the people coming from different cultures.
-Develop the skill of multi-sided thinking by causing them gain the cultural sensitivity and experience.
-Teach how to behave according to cultural differences. -Teach how to manage multinational groups .
-Develop the way of thinking from individuality to globalized .
3.Information Communication- Technology and Education
Under the effects of globalization, education is driven to important changes. The effects of Globalization on education bring faster developments in technology and communications are foreseeing changes within school systems across the world as ideas, values and knowledge, changing the roles of students and teachers, and producing a shift in society from industrialization towards an information-based society. It reflects the impact on culture and brings about a new form of cultural imperialism.
It gives quick developments in technology and communications are foreseeing changes the rise of a global society, driven by technology and communication developments are shaping children, the future citizens of the world into „global citizens‟, intelligent people with a broad range of skills and knowledge to apply to a competitive, information based society. The nature of delivering education to students is being changed by the introduction of technology into the classroom, is gradually giving way to a new form of electronic literacy , more programs and education materials are made available in electronic form, teachers are preparing materials in electronic form; and students are generating papers, assignments and projects in electronic form‟. Video projection screens, books with storage device servers and CD ROMs as well as the rise of on-line digital libraries are now replacing blackboards. Even exams and grades are gradually becoming available by electronic means and notebooks are starting to give way to laptops. also, Students can be examined through computer managed learning systems and do tutorial exercises on a computer rather than in classroom. Such developments in education portray that there has been a shift from industrialization to information-based societies. Hence, technology is predicting in the education environment towards a reliance on electronic sources to deliver material.
With such changes and the emergence of video conferencing and the Internet, the barriers of distance are being broken down at a fast rate, due to the key aspect of globalisation. Children and adults can now learn in a variety of ways and no longer have to be physically presented in an education institution in order to learn, a definite advantage of flexible delivery systems. It allows for exploration of new areas of learning and thinking. The rapid growth of television services, with their immense influence as media of mass communication, has very relevant in the technological shift. Other large contributions to this shift contain the transistor and space satellites. Communication and information technology based over the years in Internet, which is a massive network of computers located throughout the world.
These computers maintain libraries of text, images, computer software, and other forms of information that anyone can access it, anywhere, at any time. This implementation of technology and communication to be successful and to educate a society, both the students and teachers need to be technologically literate. Communication technology is offering new challenges for students of all abilities as they can discuss problems of concern with their fellow students from around the world. Thus, advanced communication and interpersonal skills, fostering a mutual understanding across countries and cultures.
In the 21st century, education systems face the dual challenge of equipping students with the new knowledge, skills and values needed to be competitive in a global market while at the same time producing graduates who are responsible adults, good citizens both of their country and of the world. Thus, globalization challenges us to rethink not only how much education is needed but also its final goal.
Globalization has had many obvious effects on educational and communication systems change the way education is delivered as well as roles played by both teachers and students. The development of this technology is facilitating the transition from an industrial based society to an information-based one. At the same time, there is a dark side to globalization and to the very openness of the new information systems; while the richest countries grow richer, the poor are becoming poorer. Thus, information and education gaps between the rich and the poor are widening not narrowing; economic crises, trade imbalances and structural adjustments have caused a moral crisis in many countries, damaging and cutting the basic social and cultural fabric of many families and communities apart, resulting in increasing youth unemployment, suicide, violence, racism and drug abuse and antisocial behaviour form schools.
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