What is Communist Anarchism? Ch28!

in #communism9 months ago

This is the 30th installment of Alexander Berkman's book, What is Communist Anarchism, it can be found in the Anarchists' Library.

Today's excerpt goes into how the revolution must look to succeed.
We know from experience, these things generally play out the same way and end with little change for the people, if they are not worse off.


Chapter 28: Principles and Practice

The main purpose of the social revolution must be the immediate betterment of conditions for the masses.
The success of the revolution fundamentally depends on it.
This can be achieved only by organizing consumption and production so as to be of real benefit to the populace.
In that lies the greatest — in fact, the only — security of the social revolution.
It was not the Red army which conquered counter-revolution in Russia: it was the peasants holding on for dear life to the land they had taken during the upheaval.
The social revolution must be of material gain to the masses if it is to live and grow.
The people at large must be sure of actual advantage from their efforts, or at least entertain the hope of such advantage in the near future.
The revolution is doomed if it relies for its existence and defense on mechanical means, such as war and armies.
The real safety of the revolution is organic; that is, it lies in industry and production.

The object of revolution is to secure greater freedom, to increase the material welfare of the people.
The aim of the social revolution, in particular, is to enable the masses by their own efforts to bring about conditions of material and social well-being, to rise to higher moral and spiritual levels.

In other words, it is liberty which is to be established by the social revolution.
For true liberty is based on economic opportunity.
Without it all liberty is a sham and lie, a mask for exploitation and oppression.
In the profoundest sense liberty is the daughter of economic equality.

The main aim of the social revolution is therefore to establish equal liberty on the basis of equal opportunity.
The revolutionary reorganization of life must immediately proceed to secure the equality of all, economically, politically, and socially.

That reorganization will depend, first and foremost, on the thorough familiarity of labor with the economic situation of the country: on a complete inventory of the supply, on exact knowledge of the sources of raw material, and on the proper organization of the labor forces for efficient management.

It means that statistics and intelligent workers’ associations are vital needs of the revolution, on the day after the upheaval.
The entire problem of production and distribution — the life of the revolution — is based on it.
It is obvious, as pointed out before, that this knowledge must be acquired by the workers before the revolution if the latter is to accomplish its purposes.

That is why the shop and factory committee, dealt with in the previous chapter, are so important and will play such a decisive rôle in the revolutionary reconstruction.

For a new society is not born suddenly, any more than a child is.
New social life gestates in the body of the old just as new individual life does in the mother’s womb.
Time and certain processes are required to develop it till it becomes a complete organism capable of functioning.
When that stage has been reached birth takes place in agony and pain, socially as individually.
Revolution, to use a trite but expressive saying, is the midwife of the new social being.
This is true in the most literal sense.
Capitalism is the parent of the new society; the shop and factory committee, the union of class-conscious labor and revolutionary aims, is the germ of the new life.
In that shop committee and union the worker must acquire the knowledge of how to manage his affairs: in the process he will grow to the perception that social life is a matter of proper organization, of united effort, of solidarity.
He will come to understand that it is not the bossing and ruling of men but free association and harmonious working together which accomplish things; that it is not government and laws which produce and create, make the wheat grow and the wheels turn, but concord and coöperation.
Experience will teach him to substitute the management of things in place of the government of men.
In the daily life and struggles of his shop-committee the worker must learn how to conduct the revolution.

Shop and factory committees, organized locally, by district, region, and State, and federated nationally, will be the bodies best suited to carry on revolutionary production.

Local and State labor councils, federated nationally, will be the form of organization most adapted to manage distribution by means of the people’s coöperatives.

These committees, elected by the workers on the job, connect their shop and factory with other shops and factories of the same industry.
The Joint Council of an entire industry links that industry with other industries, and thus is formed a federation of labor councils for the entire country.

Coöperative associations are the mediums of exchange between the country and city.
The farmers, organized locally and federated regionally and nationally, supply the needs of the cities by means of the coöperatives and receive through the latter in exchange the products of the city industries.

Every revolution is accompanied by a great outburst of popular enthusiasm full of hope and aspiration.
It is the spring-board of revolution.
This high tide, spontaneous and powerful, opens up the human sources of initiative and activity.
The sense of equality liberates the best there is in man and makes him consciously creative.
These are the great motors of the social revolution, its moving forces.
Their free and unhindered expression signifies the development and deepening of the revolution.
Their suppression means decay and death.
The revolution is safe, it grows and becomes strong, as long as the masses feel that they are direct participants in it, that they are fashioning their own lives, that they are making the revolution, that they are the revolution.
But the moment their activities are usurped by a political party or are centered in some special organization, revolutionary effort becomes limited to a comparatively small circle from which the large masses are practically excluded.
The natural result is that popular enthusiasm is dampened, interest gradually weakens, initiative languishes, creativeness wanes, and the revolution becomes the monopoly of a clique which presently turns dictator.

This is fatal to the revolution.
The sole prevention of such a catastrophe lies in the continued active interest of the workers through their every-day participation in all matters pertaining to the revolution.
The source of this interest and activity is the shop and the union.

The interest of the masses and their loyalty to the revolution depend furthermore on their feeling that the revolution represents justice and fair play.
This explains why revolutions have the power of rousing the people to acts of great heroism and devotion.
As already pointed out, the masses instinctively see in revolution the enemy of wrong and iniquity and the harbinger of justice.
In this sense revolution is a highly ethical factor and an inspiration.
Fundamentally it is only great moral principles which can fire the masses and lift them to spiritual heights.

All popular upheavals have shown this to be true; particularly so the Russian Revolution.
It was because of that spirit that the Russian masses so strikingly triumphed over all obstacles in the days of February and October.
No opposition could conquer their devotion inspired by a great and noble cause.
But the Revolution began to decline when it had become emasculated of its high moral values, when it was denuded of its elements of justice, equality, and liberty.
Their loss was the doom of the Revolution.

It cannot be emphasized too strongly how essential spiritual values are to the social revolution.
These and the consciousness of the masses that the revolution also means material betterment are dynamic influences in the life and growth of the new society.
Of the two factors the spiritual values are foremost.
The history of previous revolutions proves that the masses were ever willing to suffer and to sacrifice material well-being for the sake of greater liberty and justice.
Thus in Russia neither cold nor starvation could induce the peasants and workers to aid counter-revolution.
All privation and misery notwithstanding they served heroically the interests of the great cause.
It was only when they saw the Revolution monopolized by a political party, the new-won liberties curtailed, a dictatorship established, and injustice and inequality dominant again that they became indifferent to the Revolution, declined to participate in the sham, refused to coöperate, and even turned against it.

To forget ethical values, to introduce practices and methods inconsistent with or opposed to the high moral purposes of the revolution means to invite counter-revolution and disaster.

It is therefore clear that the success of the social revolution primarily depends on liberty and equality.
Any deviation from them can only be harmful; indeed, is sure to prove destructive.
It follows that all the activities of the revolution must be based on freedom and equal rights.
This applies to small things as to great. Any acts or methods tending to limit liberty, to create inequality and injustice, can result only in a popular attitude inimical to the revolution and in best interests.

It is from this angle that all the problems of the revolutionary period must be considered and solved.
Among those problems the most important are consumption and housing, production and exchange.



Шок и трепет! Коммунистический анархизм - это как девственная проститутка. Фактически в книге описан нацизм. Про голод в России при большевиках смеялся в голос. Пришли большевики, уровень жизни вырос в сотни раз, голод навсегда ушел.
Это обычная анти-коммунистическая троцкистская агитка, нацистов.

Не читал, но если автор Нестор Махно не мусор. Надо понимать, существует коммунизм, существует анархизм. Нет никакого анархо-коммунизма. Это 2 различные идеологии. Обе они левые, но разнятся в базисе.
Коммунисты предполагают на первом этапе построение диктатуры рабочего класса. Однако стремятся к бесклассовому обществу. Потому и был убит Иосиф Сталин. В чем идея бесклассового общества? На базе НТР (научно технического революции), рабочий за 1 рабочий час может сделать объем работы за сутки или даже неделю работы. Для примера крестьянин пашет сохой на лошадке и обрабатывает 1 гектар земли за световой день работы. Тот же крестьянин на тракторе и хорошем металлическим плугом за световой день может вспахать 50 гектар земли. Точно такие же показатели у станков с ЧПУ и т.д. Как результат можно, да и нужно резко сократить рабочий день и рабочую неделю. Потому как рабочие производят избыточное количество товаров и услуг. В результате, если условный крестьянин 3 часа в сутки пашет 3 раза в неделю, а 12 часов ежедневно рисует картины (12 часов т.к. любимое хобби и уделяет ему больше внимания) он кто крестьянин или художник? Так уничтожаются классы.
Махно... Тут все куда сложнее с одной стороны анархизм привлекательнее. Вот только в реальном мире трудно осуществим. Они сразу предлагают отказаться от государства, как аппарата насилия. Управлять будут люди не потому, что начальники, а потому, что пользуются авторитетом и населения. Допустим эксперт в некой области, он авторитетен не потому, что он начальник или директор, а потому, что лучше всех разбирается в вопросе.
В теории общество будет более справедливым. Однако, учитывая, что вокруг другие государства в том числе с буржуазным строем правления. Кто же даст такой вольной республике развиваться? Да ее банально задушат военной силой.
В конце по книге, попытаюсь почитать, год издания смущает, после смерти Махно. В теории могут быть и его слова и цитаты и те слова и цитаты, которые ему в последующем приписывали. Нужно понимать в те годы шла Холодная война, потому идеологию СССР пытались всячески опорочить. Махно же по итогу воевал с молодой республикой Советов. Потому, книгу нужно сначала прочесть, потом выскажу свое мнение.

Волин написала это.

Кропоткин написал эту.

Беркман написал этот.

Кропоткин был князем в царской России и клялся в царской власти.

Беркман был рабочим классом и эмигрировал только для того, чтобы быть возвращенным по приказу о депортации за то, что слишком много болтал.

Они оба называли то, что делали, анархо-коммунизмом.

Переведено с помощью www.DeepL.com/Translator (бесплатная версия)

Please excuse me. The translator works well. I thought you spoke Russian. I will use a translator.
I know who Kropotkin is. Except he's more of an anarchist theorist. He did not take part in the revolution. He did not command the troops. Therefore, in Russia, Makhno enjoys great respect as an anarchist. Sometimes he is called Batka Makhno. There is also a modern Batka. Father Lukashenko is the President of Belarus.
By the way, he also does not make contacts with Europe. You can't call Lukashenko an anarchist. Although as a politician, left-wing ideas are noticeable. And what is the result? Sanctions against Lukashenko. They declare him a dictator. The threat of military intervention.
Imagine if there was a country of anarchists where there is no state. There is no regular army. Therefore, anarchists are rather dreamers. In the ring of bourgeois democracies, the construction of an anarchist republic is impossible.
Now about the name. The problem is in terms. I don't know if a translator can translate them. Communism is the ultimate goal of both the Bolsheviks and the anarchists. In the USSR, the Bolshevik party became known as the Communist Party.
As a result, the whole world knows communists. Some people mistakenly believe that there was communism in the USSR.
So I made a clear distinction between anarchists and communists.
The ultimate goal of the Communists can only be read in science fiction novels. For example, the Strugatsky brothers. They described the " Worlds of Noon." When communism won. A society that has conquered disease. Conquered deep space. Exploring distant planets and stars. People because of quality medicine. Actually fantastic with super-drugs. Practically immortal. They can die in a spaceship accident for example. You can shoot or kill. There is no physiological structure. There are all possible material goods. Society of equals. Only communism was not built anywhere. That's why I rely on science fiction novels. We can only fantasize. Fantasize about how this will happen. The goal was not achieved. In the USSR, they said we have developed socialism.
For example, the Strugatsky brothers. They were caressed by the authorities. They had a very good life. After the destruction of the USSR. They moved to the camp of the ideological enemy. They wrote a lot of bad things about the USSR.
Returning to the thought. Because of the name Communist Party and communism, there is a lot of confusion. The anarchists had as its goal to build communism. The Communists aimed to build communism.
The anarchists were not communists. The Communists were not anarchists. They had a common goal.

Анархисты не были коммунистами. Коммунисты не были анархистами. У них была общая цель.

Вы были бы шокированы, узнав, что 99% американской общественности не знают разницы?

Я постоянно сражаюсь в этой семантической битве.
Коммунизму не нужна сила, потому что идеи лучше, чем то, что предлагают хулиганы капитализма.

Если вы потусуетесь, я буду сериализировать эту книгу, написанную в 1887 году.
Ответы на вопросы о том, каким болезненным было общество в наших библиотеках все это время.

Не дай Бог, чтобы они учили, как быть свободными в школе.

Переведено с помощью www.DeepL.com/Translator (бесплатная версия)

American society is not very interesting in Russia. I'm afraid to hurt you. Everything is connected with 1991 and propaganda. Propaganda said that the American society is afraid of the armed forces of the USSR. Therefore, it was decided to abandon the army. To dissolve the Soviet Union. Dissolve the Warsaw Pact Organization. The result? The capitalists seized power. The population has suffered greatly economically.
As a result, society in Russia was divided into 2 unequal parts. Some are in favor of capitalism and in every way on the side of the United States, as a model of capitalism. No one has done any statistics. However, judging by the TV channels, radio stations that support this position. Viewers and listeners are about 5-7% of the population. You need to understand, some people listen and look to understand the positions of a political opponent.
During the 30 years of capitalism, the level of education has greatly decreased. So I can't say that 90% are left-wing. Left-wing ideas prevail in society. However, some perceive them as a cargo cult. Some, especially young people, advocate the USSR as the idea of a"Red Empire". For them, it's not about equality. It's about excellence. The superiority of the USSR technologies. Space technologies. The Cult of Cybernetics. Excellent weapons. The world's best secret service and the like.
From textbooks. The textbook of logic published under Stalin is extremely interesting. I do not give a link, now in the Russian segment of the Internet textbooks from the time of Stalin are sold. My link may look like a merchant's attempt to sell a product.
I was interested in the works of the left, I studied them. Because I know a little more about American society. You have a lot of left-wing Trotskyist books in your country. At the same time, many right-wingers are persistently called left-wingers.
For example, in the struggle for the rights of the black population, the white population is oppressed. You can not be oppressed by the color of your skin! It doesn't matter if it's white or black. This is a right-wing movement, racism, not a left-wing movement.
At the same time, there are new wave feminists. Who advocate the oppression of men. This is a right-wing movement. You can not oppress a man or a woman on the basis of gender. What do such movements achieve? Separation! There is a fight on the color of the skin on the floor.
They don't oppress people based on their skin color or gender. They are oppressed by capital.
Were there black slaves? Were. Were there white slaves? Were! For example, it was in the United States that the Irish were used as slaves in the 19th century.
Therefore, the division should not be based on the color of the skin. It should be on the capital. In America, I heard there are migrants from Mexico.
In Russia, there is a similar situation. There are many illegal migrants from Central Asia. Further, the capitalists lie that migrants take away work.
The illegal migrant is very limited in rights, receives pennies. Performs a difficult job. He can't take anything away. Only an employer can take away a job. Who does not want to pay a decent salary to an employee. It is profitable for him to hire a restricted employee. An employee who works for a pittance.
What do your capitalists and our capitalists say? Illegal migrants took away their jobs. How? Do they have the capital, the strength? There is nothing.
Except for the opportunity to gather in gangs. Although this is a separate topic for conversation. Even criminal gangs are taken advantage of by capitalists.
Books? That's good! I will be happy to read with you and discuss it with you. Although I may not like it very much, as a reader. :-))))
I will express my opinion and criticize. Naturally with arguments and facts.

Я думаю, все сводится к тому, чтобы править силой.
Прекратите это, и большинство недугов общества исчезнут, но до тех пор, пока они могут заставить других подчиниться, почему они должны остановиться?

Книга, как минимум интересна, но как и думал во многом построена на пропаганде. Для примера большевистское правительство подписало Брест-литовский мирный договор по которому вся украина отошла Германии и Австро-Венгрии...
Причем не указано, что большевики не контролировали Украины, что там была армия "петлюровцев" (националисты, прославились еврейскими погромами) и создано германское марионеточное правительство УНР. Большевиков вынудили признать факт, что Украина, Беларусь и Прибалтика оккупированы немцами и эти правительства.
Нужно понимать в то время шла гражданская война. Финляндия напала на РСФСР, террористы финны проводили успешные террористические акты в Петрограде, даже были попытки отравить городской водопровод и вызвать эпидемию. Одновременно царская армия прекратило существование. Красной армии еще не было, а создавались отряды красной гвардии (еще не армии) и этим отбивались от всех...
Одновременно ничего не сказано о предвестнике революции Емельяне Пугачеве. Он создал армию, выпускал деньги, ордена, имел министерства и контролировал значительную часть империи. Потом он проиграет. Однако данная буржуазная революция и гражданская война 1773-1775 годы 2 года шла война. Потом через 4 года, будет Великая Французская буржуазная революция.
Понятно, история не знает сослагательных наклонений, вот только Российская Империя могла вполне опередить Францию на этом пути.
После разгрома основных частей революционеров Пугачева, длительное время сражался его генерал Салават Юлаев. Фактически с того момента, Россия жила в перманентной гражданской войне, которую умудрялись давить. Были моменты, когда даже аристократы поднимались на бунт (декабристы), затем когда целых 22 губернии одновременно восстали.
Просто в 1905 поднялась вся Империя...

Или вот высказывание, что Волин отправился сражаться с иностранными оккупантами и их русскими сторонниками. За русскую речь убивали. На Украине правили сторонники Петлюры, которые имели лозунг Украина без русских и евреев. Сражался он с немцами, австрияками и украинскими националистами. Никак не русскими. Ибо все русские в тот момент, кто выжил сами создавали партизанские отряды по типу Щорса и сражались против УНР и этнических чисток.
Извините, если много пишу и не очень интересно мнение, могу его не высказывать по мере прочтения книги. Если желаете, как-то отдельно изложу.

Для примера по арестам Волина, тем более приказа Троцкого (которого у нас традиционно не любят, но надо быть честными) никаких данных об аресте Волина до 1920 года, а тем более приказе Троцкого расстрелять нет.
Более того далее идет прямая манипуляция. Якобы у большевиков ничего не было, против Волина и его сторонников, кроме их взглядов...
Как бы я не уважал Нестеро Махно, но давайте будем откровенными армии махно и Красная армия не раз и не два сражались. Как это ничего нет, если он убивал солдат большевиков. Пусть не сам лично из винтовки, а как один из командиров и идеологов. Подозреваю, что Муссолини не 1 человека лично не убил во время 2 мировой войны. Однако отдавал приказы и посылал войска.
Я не говорю, что Волин равен фашистам, более того анархист - это левый. Но он воевал!!! Что еще нужно для ареста, если ты воюешь и убиваешь солдат? Тебе что за это премию выдать?
Далее чехословакии указаны "пленными". Вообще чехословацкий корпус проводил геноцид и террор на нашей земле. То что они вытворяли даже страшно описывать. Им было мало убивать мирных и невиновных людей, убивали с особым зверством и пытками. Ограбили несколько банков и на это золото создали золотой запас будущей Чехословакии.
В целом жду вашего решения, просто я эмоционально излагаю позицию, рассказывая очевидные для меня вещи. Вам же такое может быть не интересно.
Для любопытства, поинтересуйтесь вел ли Махно боевые действия против большевиков. А если он их вел, чего сам не отрицает...
Были ли основания у большевиков брать в плен своих политических противников, которые сражаются против них с оружием в руках?
Вообще в любой стране мира, если сражаются 2 армии в гражданской войне, есть основание брать в плен своих противников?
Далее указывают их выслали из страны, что это нечто плохое. Вообще-то в некоторых гражданских войнах политических противников просто вешали. Рафаель дель Риего был повешен в Испании на площади Ла-Себада в Мадриде.
Тут же милость к проигравшей стороне и высылка из страны.

В принципе, я думаю, что мы должны извлечь уроки из того, что они сделали, что не привело к прекращению власти над другими через насилие.

Таково определение террористического государства, и статистики празднуют это день за днем.

Мы должны извлечь уроки, двигаться вперед и осуждать тех, кто правит не лучшими идеями, а тупой силой.

Пока мы не сможем сделать это, рабство - это судьба многих людей.

Переведено с помощью www.DeepL.com/Translator (бесплатная версия)

You almost repeated Lenin's quote. Only he added. The state is an unavoidable evil in the first stage of building communism. So far, the country is surrounded by enemies in the form of bourgeois democracies. The democracy we have the army. They will simply strangle you with military force.

Ну, Ленин был близок к цели.
Большевики кооптировали идеи анархистов, но доставляли силу социалистов, никогда не достигая заявленной цели коммунизма.

Никто из нас не узнает свободы, пока мы не сможем защититься от атак налоговых агентов.
Они делают нас рабами.

I don't agree. The anarchists and the Bolsheviks at the same time develop their ideas. For the leftists of that time, the main reference book was Marx's Capital. Then they made their own conclusions and found their own solutions. We must not forget that there were many left-wing parties in Russia.
Anarchists, Bolsheviks, Mensheviks, Esser, Esser left, the social Democrats and many outright may not all remember.

Security? Even in the army of Father Makhno, young people refused their right to life. They joined the army, got wounded or died. They were protecting their loved ones. To get the right to security. The young guys gave up their right. Than they gave this right to their loved ones.

There is nothing wrong with a tax. If it is for the benefit of society. Read about the same Gulyai-Pole, the capital of Makhno. People have introduced a tax on teachers. They collected food: fruits, vegetables, poultry meat, meat, lard, kerosene (then they used kerosene lamps), went to work so that the teachers could fix the roof in the house or fix a breakdown in the house.
Money didn't really matter in the Civil War. The products and goods of the manufactory were valued more. That's why people created this tax. The teacher does not produce food, nor does he produce clothing or furniture. But it is useful to society. Therefore, the society must support it!
A fire department employee. It does not produce products. Does society need it? Yes!
Doctor, does not produce furniture, clothing products. Does society need it?
Therefore, taxes are necessary.

For example, a hospital can't be built alone. If we are talking about a modern hospital, where there is all the necessary complex equipment. Where chemical plants send various complex drugs for treatment.
The only question is in what form these taxes will be and in whose interests they will be used.

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