Looking Backwards: Chapter 11
This is chapter 11 in our continuing serialization and archiving of Edward Bellamy's Looking Backwards.
This book outlines a way to manage production that doesn't include all the bs that crapitalism foists upon us.
When we arrived home, Dr. Leete had not yet returned, and Mrs. Leete was not visible.
"Are you fond of music, Mr. West?" Edith asked.
I assured her that it was half of life, according to my notion.
"I ought to apologize for inquiring," she said.
"It is not a question that we ask one another nowadays; but I have read that in your day, even among the cultured class, there were some who did not care for music."
"You must remember, in excuse," I said, "that we had some rather absurd kinds of music."
"Yes," she said, "I know that;
I am afraid I should not have fancied it all myself.
Would you like to hear some of ours now, Mr. West?"
"Nothing would delight me so much as to listen to you," I said.
"To me!" she exclaimed, laughing.
"Did you think I was going to play or sing to you?"
"I hoped so, certainly," I replied.
Seeing that I was a little abashed, she subdued her merriment and explained.
"Of course, we all sing nowadays as a matter of course in the training of the voice, and some learn to play instruments for their private amusement; but the professional music is so much grander and more perfect than any performance of ours, and so easily commanded when we wish to hear it, that we don't think of calling our singing or playing music at all.
All the really fine singers and players are in the musical service, and the rest of us hold our peace for the main part.
But would you really like to hear some music?"
I assured her once more that I would.
"Come, then, into the music room," she said, and I followed her into an apartment finished, without hangings, in wood, with a floor of polished wood.
I was prepared for new devices in musical instruments, but I saw nothing in the room which by any stretch of imagination could be conceived as such.
It was evident that my puzzled appearance was affording intense amusement to Edith.
"Please look at to-day's music," she said, handing me a card, "and tell me what you would prefer.
It is now five o'clock, you will remember."
The card bore the date "September 12, 2000," and contained the longest programme of music I had ever seen.
It was as various as it was long, including a most extraordinary range of vocal and instrumental solos, duets, quartettes, and various orchestral combinations.
I remained bewildered by the prodigious list until Edith's pink finger tip indicated a particular section of it, where several selections were bracketed, with the words "5 P.M." against them; then I observed that this prodigious programme was an all-day one, divided into twenty-four sections answering to the hours.
There were but a few pieces of music in the "5 P.M." section, and I indicated an organ piece as my preference.
"I am so glad you like the organ," said she.
"I think there is scarcely any music that suits my mood oftener."
She made me sit down comfortably, and, crossing the room, so far as I could see, merely touched one or two screws, and at once the room was filled with the music of a grand organ anthem; filled, not flooded, for, by some means, the volume of melody had been perfectly graduated to the size of the apartment.
I listened, scarcely breathing, to the close.
Such music, so perfectly rendered, I had never expected to hear.
"Grand!" I cried, as the last great wave of sound broke and ebbed away into silence.
"Bach must be at the keys of that organ; but where is the organ?"
"Wait a moment, please," said Edith;
"I want to have you listen to this waltz before you ask any questions.
I think it is perfectly charming"; and as she spoke the sound of violins filled the room with the witchery of a summer night.
When this had also ceased, she said: "There is nothing in the least mysterious about the music, as you seem to imagine.
It is not made by fairies or genii, but by good, honest, and exceedingly clever human hands.
We have simply carried the idea of labor saving by cooperation into our musical service as into everything else.
There are a number of music rooms in the city, perfectly adapted acoustically to the different sorts of music.
These halls are connected by telephone with all the houses of the city whose people care to pay the small fee, and there are none, you may be sure, who do not.
The corps of musicians attached to each hall is so large that, although no individual performer, or group of performers, has more than a brief part, each day's programme lasts through the twenty-four hours.
There are on that card for to-day, as you will see if you observe closely, distinct programmes of four of these concerts, each of a different order of music from the others, being now simultaneously performed, and any one of the four pieces now going on that you prefer, you can hear by merely pressing the button which will connect your house-wire with the hall where it is being rendered.
The programmes are so coordinated that the pieces at any one time simultaneously proceeding in the different halls usually offer a choice, not only between instrumental and vocal, and between different sorts of instruments; but also between different motives from grave to gay, so that all tastes and moods can be suited."
"It appears to me, Miss Leete," I said, "that if we could have devised an arrangement for providing everybody with music in their homes, perfect in quality, unlimited in quantity, suited to every mood, and beginning and ceasing at will, we should have considered the limit of human felicity already attained, and ceased to strive for further improvements."
"I am sure I never could imagine how those among you who depended at all on music managed to endure the old-fashioned system for providing it," replied Edith.
"Music really worth hearing must have been, I suppose, wholly out of the reach of the masses, and attainable by the most favored only occasionally, at great trouble, prodigious expense, and then for brief periods, arbitrarily fixed by somebody else, and in connection with all sorts of undesirable circumstances.
Your concerts, for instance, and operas!
How perfectly exasperating it must have been, for the sake of a piece or two of music that suited you, to have to sit for hours listening to what you did not care for!
Now, at a dinner one can skip the courses one does not care for.
Who would ever dine, however hungry, if required to eat everything brought on the table? and I am sure one's hearing is quite as sensitive as one's taste.
I suppose it was these difficulties in the way of commanding really good music which made you endure so much playing and singing in your homes by people who had only the rudiments of the art."
"Yes," I replied, "it was that sort of music or none for most of us.
"Ah, well," Edith sighed, "when one really considers, it is not so strange that people in those days so often did not care for music.
I dare say I should have detested it, too."
"Did I understand you rightly," I inquired, "that this musical programme covers the entire twenty-four hours?
It seems to on this card, certainly; but who is there to listen to music between say midnight and morning?"
"Oh, many," Edith replied.
"Our people keep all hours; but if the music were provided from midnight to morning for no others, it still would be for the sleepless, the sick, and the dying.
All our bedchambers have a telephone attachment at the head of the bed by which any person who may be sleepless can command music at pleasure, of the sort suited to the mood."
"Is there such an arrangement in the room assigned to me?"
"Why, certainly; and how stupid, how very stupid, of me not to think to tell you of that last night!
Father will show you about the adjustment before you go to bed to-night, however; and with the receiver at your ear, I am quite sure you will be able to snap your fingers at all sorts of uncanny feelings if they trouble you again."
That evening Dr. Leete asked us about our visit to the store, and in the course of the desultory comparison of the ways of the nineteenth century and the twentieth, which followed, something raised the question of inheritance.
"I suppose," I said, "the inheritance of property is not now allowed."
"On the contrary," replied Dr. Leete, "there is no interference with it.
In fact, you will find, Mr. West, as you come to know us, that there is far less interference of any sort with personal liberty nowadays than you were accustomed to.
We require, indeed, by law that every man shall serve the nation for a fixed period, instead of leaving him his choice, as you did, between working, stealing, or starving.
With the exception of this fundamental law, which is, indeed, merely a codification of the law of nature—the edict of Eden—by which it is made equal in its pressure on men, our system depends in no particular upon legislation, but is entirely voluntary, the logical outcome of the operation of human nature under rational conditions.
This question of inheritance illustrates just that point.
The fact that the nation is the sole capitalist and land-owner of course restricts the individual's possessions to his annual credit, and what personal and household belongings he may have procured with it.
His credit, like an annuity in your day, ceases on his death, with the allowance of a fixed sum for funeral expenses.
His other possessions he leaves as he pleases."
"What is to prevent, in course of time, such accumulations of valuable goods and chattels in the hands of individuals as might seriously interfere with equality in the circumstances of citizens?" I asked.
"That matter arranges itself very simply," was the reply.
"Under the present organization of society, accumulations of personal property are merely burdensome the moment they exceed what adds to the real comfort.
In your day, if a man had a house crammed full with gold and silver plate, rare china, expensive furniture, and such things, he was considered rich, for these things represented money, and could at any time be turned into it.
Nowadays a man whom the legacies of a hundred relatives, simultaneously dying, should place in a similar position, would be considered very unlucky.
The articles, not being salable, would be of no value to him except for their actual use or the enjoyment of their beauty.
On the other hand, his income remaining the same, he would have to deplete his credit to hire houses to store the goods in, and still further to pay for the service of those who took care of them.
You may be very sure that such a man would lose no time in scattering among his friends possessions which only made him the poorer, and that none of those friends would accept more of them than they could easily spare room for and time to attend to.
You see, then, that to prohibit the inheritance of personal property with a view to prevent great accumulations would be a superfluous precaution for the nation.
The individual citizen can be trusted to see that he is not overburdened.
So careful is he in this respect, that the relatives usually waive claim to most of the effects of deceased friends, reserving only particular objects.
The nation takes charge of the resigned chattels, and turns such as are of value into the common stock once more."
"You spoke of paying for service to take care of your houses," said I; "that suggests a question I have several times been on the point of asking.
How have you disposed of the problem of domestic service?
Who are willing to be domestic servants in a community where all are social equals?
Our ladies found it hard enough to find such even when there was little pretense of social equality."
"It is precisely because we are all social equals whose equality nothing can compromise, and because service is honorable, in a society whose fundamental principle is that all in turn shall serve the rest, that we could easily provide a corps of domestic servants such as you never dreamed of, if we needed them," replied Dr. Leete.
"But we do not need them."
"Who does your house-work, then?" I asked.
"There is none to do," said Mrs. Leete, to whom I had addressed this question.
"Our washing is all done at public laundries at excessively cheap rates, and our cooking at public kitchens.
The making and repairing of all we wear are done outside in public shops.
Electricity, of course, takes the place of all fires and lighting.
We choose houses no larger than we need, and furnish them so as to involve the minimum of trouble to keep them in order.
We have no use for domestic servants."
"The fact," said Dr. Leete, "that you had in the poorer classes a boundless supply of serfs on whom you could impose all sorts of painful and disagreeable tasks, made you indifferent to devices to avoid the necessity for them.
But now that we all have to do in turn whatever work is done for society, every individual in the nation has the same interest, and a personal one, in devices for lightening the burden.
This fact has given a prodigious impulse to labor-saving inventions in all sorts of industry, of which the combination of the maximum of comfort and minimum of trouble in household arrangements was one of the earliest results.
"In case of special emergencies in the household," pursued Dr. Leete, "such as extensive cleaning or renovation, or sickness in the family, we can always secure assistance from the industrial force."
"But how do you recompense these assistants, since you have no money?"
"We do not pay them, of course, but the nation for them.
Their services can be obtained by application at the proper bureau, and their value is pricked off the credit card of the applicant."
"What a paradise for womankind the world must be now!" I exclaimed.
"In my day, even wealth and unlimited servants did not enfranchise their possessors from household cares, while the women of the merely well-to-do and poorer classes lived and died martyrs to them."
"Yes," said Mrs. Leete, "I have read something of that; enough to convince me that, badly off as the men, too, were in your day, they were more fortunate than their mothers and wives."
"The broad shoulders of the nation," said Dr. Leete, "bear now like a feather the burden that broke the backs of the women of your day.
Their misery came, with all your other miseries, from that incapacity for cooperation which followed from the individualism on which your social system was founded, from your inability to perceive that you could make ten times more profit out of your fellow men by uniting with them than by contending with them.
The wonder is, not that you did not live more comfortably, but that you were able to live together at all, who were all confessedly bent on making one another your servants, and securing possession of one another's goods.
"There, there, father, if you are so vehement, Mr. West will think you are scolding him," laughingly interposed Edith.
"When you want a doctor," I asked, "do you simply apply to the proper bureau and take any one that may be sent?"
"That rule would not work well in the case of physicians," replied Dr. Leete.
"The good a physician can do a patient depends largely on his acquaintance with his constitutional tendencies and condition.
The patient must be able, therefore, to call in a particular doctor, and he does so just as patients did in your day.
The only difference is that, instead of collecting his fee for himself, the doctor collects it for the nation by pricking off the amount, according to a regular scale for medical attendance, from the patient's credit card."
"I can imagine," I said, "that if the fee is always the same, and a doctor may not turn away patients, as I suppose he may not, the good doctors are called constantly and the poor doctors left in idleness."
"In the first place, if you will overlook the apparent conceit of the remark from a retired physician," replied Dr. Leete, with a smile, "we have no poor doctors.
Anybody who pleases to get a little smattering of medical terms is not now at liberty to practice on the bodies of citizens, as in your day.
None but students who have passed the severe tests of the schools, and clearly proved their vocation, are permitted to practice.
Then, too, you will observe that there is nowadays no attempt of doctors to build up their practice at the expense of other doctors.
There would be no motive for that.
For the rest, the doctor has to render regular reports of his work to the medical bureau, and if he is not reasonably well employed, work is found for him."
If you are not reading along with us, how can you accurately argue against this proposed management system?
You have to read the material to 'know' what is in it.
If you haven't read the material, please stop acting as if you know it all, clearly you don't.