中国改革开放40年,北京的巨大变化!Great changes have taken place in Beijing since China's reform and opening up 40 years ago.

in cn •  21 days ago

大家好,我是DJ HUMBLE 来自北京。现在我给大家分享一篇关于北京的文章,深刻讲述了北京改革开放后的变化。
40年转瞬即逝,改革开放的一声巨响给中国带来了巨大的变化。人们的生活水平得到提高,经济实力也大幅提升。国家的形象,实力和地位也得到了国际的认可。作为一个在北京长大的孩子,对北京这座城市有着深厚的感情。经过调查、访问和网上资料的搜集,将从北京“吃穿住行”四个方面介绍通过讲解和事例给大家讲解北京改革开放以后40年的变化。
北京的“吃”
Hello, everyone. I'm DJ HUMBLE from Beijing. Now I share an article about Beijing, which tells you about the changes in Beijing after the reform and opening up.

Forty years are fleeting, and a great noise of reform and opening up has brought great changes to China. People's living standards have been improved and their economic strength has been greatly enhanced. The image, strength and status of the country have also been internationally recognized. As a child growing up in Beijing, he has a deep feeling for the city. After investigating, visiting and collecting information on the Internet, this paper will introduce the changes of Beijing in the past 40 years after the reform and opening up through explanations and examples from four aspects of "eating, wearing and traveling" in Beijing.

"Eat" in Beijing
20世纪90年代以前存在过一个特殊的“票证时代”。说起吃就必须与票证挂钩,当时人们买食物钱不是第一要位,有票证才是大前提。然而随着改革开放给中国经济和民生带来的巨大变化。在1992年,中国告别了长达40年之久的票证时代。从此票证也因此成为一种历史和文化的象征。
Before the 1990s, there existed a special "ticket era". Speaking of food must be linked to tickets, when people buy food money is not the first priority, tickets are the main premise. However, with the reform and opening to the outside world, great changes have taken place in China's economy and people's livelihood. In 1992, China bid farewell to the 40-year-old era of tickets. Since then, tickets have become a symbol of history and culture

北京市结婚家具购买证
(中国国家博物馆藏)
Beijing Marriage Furniture Purchase Certificate
(China National Museum Collection)

1980年开业时(右)与现在的北京悦宾饭馆
When it opened in 1980 (right) and now Beijing Yuebin Restaurant
1980年9月30日,北京市东城区,中国美术馆附近的翠花胡同被挤得水泄不通。一家个人开办的名叫“悦宾饭馆”的餐馆吸引了无数围观者,改革开放后中国第一家个体饭馆——悦宾饭馆应运而生。当天《北京晚报》就登出一篇巴掌大的文章,标题是《中国第一家个体饭店开张》。当时大家都想去尝尝“第一家”,饭店每天到了午饭和晚饭时间,饭店门口都挤满了人。一天下来,女老板刘桂仙数着面额不一的纸币、硬币:38元,这差不多是当时一个高级工人的月收入。美国合众国际社记者在一篇报道里称:“在共产党中国的心脏,美味食品和私人工商业正在狭窄的胡同里恢复元气”。慕名而来的外国使馆人员越来越多,饭店包桌居然排到了68天之后。1981年春节,国家领导人姚依林、陈慕华来到刘桂仙家拜年,告诉他们“不用怕”。就这样,北京陆续又有第二家第三家个体饭店,经营环境开始越来越好。
到了90年代初,进餐馆尝鲜已不再是遥不可及的事情,谁家有喜庆事,都愿意在饭店摆一桌。那时候刚时兴自助餐,许多人都好奇要去尝一尝。再往后,鱼翅、鲍鱼、海参等高档食材开始出现在人们面前,经营粤菜、生猛海鲜的餐馆生意都很火爆。
On September 30, 1980, in Dongcheng District of Beijing, Cuihua Hutong near the Chinese Art Museum was crowded with water. An individual restaurant called Yuebin Restaurant attracted numerous spectators. Yuebin Restaurant, the first individual restaurant in China, emerged as the times require after the reform and opening up. On that day, the Beijing Evening News published a palm-sized article titled "The First Individual Hotel in China Opens". At that time, everyone wanted to try "the first one". Every day the restaurant arrived at lunch and dinner time, and the entrance of the restaurant was crowded with people. One day, Liu Guixian, the female boss, counted notes and coins of different denominations: 38 yuan, which was almost the monthly income of a senior worker at that time. "In the heart of the Communist Party of China, delicious food and private industry and commerce are recovering in narrow alleys," U.S. News Agency correspondent said in a report. More and more foreign embassy staff came to the hotel after 68 days. In the Spring Festival of 1981, state leaders Yao Yilin and Chen Muhua came to Liu Guixian's home to celebrate the New Year and told them "Don't be afraid". In this way, Beijing has a second and third individual hotel in succession, and the business environment is getting better and better.

By the early 1990s, eating in restaurants was no longer a distant thing. Whoever had a happy occasion would like to set a table in a restaurant. The buffet was just in fashion at that time, and many people were curious to try it. Later, high-grade ingredients such as shark fin, abalone, and sea cucumber began to appear in front of people. Restaurants operating Cantonese cuisine and vigorous seafood were very popular.

1987年,肯德基北京前门店开业后,排队吃肯德基的场面
In 1987, after the opening of KFC's Beijing Qianmen Store, the scene of queuing for KFC was observed.
1987年11月20日,肯德基在北京前门正式开启中国第一家餐厅。开业那天,顾客几乎需要2小时才能等到一个座位。眼看着门口排队的人群快要挤爆,不得不求助警察来帮忙维持秩序。只要到周末,光餐厅外排起的队伍就有400多米,必须分段分时放人进来。前门肯德基变成了北京城里的“网红店”,上肯德基吃西餐变成了一件时髦的事,甚至成为北京旅游的一大景点。很多来到北京的人,必定要去肯德基尝一下,然后与门口的山德士上校人像留影纪念。
On November 20, 1987, KFC officially opened the first restaurant in China at the front door of Beijing. On an opening day, it took almost two hours for customers to wait for a seat. Watching the crowds in the queue at the door bursting, I had to turn to the police to help maintain order. As long as the weekend comes, there will be more than 400 meters of queues outside the restaurant alone, and people must be put in in time and in stages. Qianmen KFC has become a "net red shop" in Beijing. Eating Western food in KFC has become a fashionable thing and even a major tourist attraction in Beijing. Many people who come to Beijing must go to KFC for a taste and take photos with the portrait of Colonel Sanders at the entrance.

1990年麦当劳深圳光华餐厅开业以后,
生意非常红火
1990年10月8日,中国内地第一家麦当劳餐厅——光华餐厅在深圳市罗湖区东门商业步行街盛大开幕。按照当地的风俗,舞狮、点睛、采青,一样都不能少。开业当日,深圳光华餐厅就创下了当时全球麦当劳有史以来的单店单天营业额与顾客光临数的记录。
自此,洋快餐加快了进入中国市场的步伐,这不仅带给中国人进食口味上的不同,还有饮食文化、管理模式、用餐观念等的改变。
到了21世纪,饮食的极大丰富导致了大量肥胖、疾病的产生,人们开始寻求健康饮食。人们的饮食习惯,由原来的饱餐型向营养型、新鲜型、简便型转变。外卖行业发展如火如荼,各色饮食都可以通过网络轻松下单,快速便捷地送到顾客手中。
北京人的“穿”
从黑灰走向时装个性化
改革开放前的中国,人们买衣服要凭布票,色彩和样式单调。映入眼帘的,千篇一律的是灰色中山装或蓝色解放装,被形容为“蓝色的海洋”。“新三年,旧三年,缝缝补补又三年”,是那个年代的金科玉律。稍微颜色亮丽一点的衣服根本没人敢穿,一不小心就会引来指责。当时百姓生活水平有限,衣服的数量也很少。用当时的话讲,叫“艰苦朴素”,说到底还是供应紧张。
On November 20, 1987, KFC officially opened the first restaurant in China at the front door of Beijing. On an opening day, it took almost two hours for customers to wait for a seat. Watching the crowds in the queue at the door bursting, I had to turn to the police to help maintain order. As long as the weekend comes, there will be more than 400 meters of queues outside the restaurant alone, and people must be put in in time and in stages. Qianmen KFC has become a "net red shop" in Beijing. Eating Western food in KFC has become a fashionable thing and even a major tourist attraction in Beijing. Many people who come to Beijing must go to KFC for a taste and take photos with the portrait of Colonel Sanders at the entrance.

20世纪80年代,北京,穿喇叭裤的青年

老百姓服饰的春天开始于改革开放。一些西方的服饰进入中国并且形成了一种社会潮流。20世纪80年代初,戴蛤蟆镜、穿喇叭裤成了一种大街小巷的时尚。随后,“港裤”“燕尾服”等各种新潮的服装相继涌现。
The spring of common people's clothing began with the reform and opening up. Some Western clothing has entered China and formed a social trend. In the early 1980s, wearing toad glasses and trumpet trousers became a fashion in the streets and alleys. Subsequently, "Hong Kong trousers" and "swallow tail clothes" and other fashionable clothing emerged one after another.


1979年,皮尔·卡丹在北京民族文化宫的内部时装秀
1979年3月,法国时装设计大师皮尔·卡丹应邀来华,他是第一位来华的国际级服装大师。他率领12个外国服装模特在北京民族文化宫举办了一场法国时装表演。当年的中国,涌动街头的还是一片“蓝色的海洋”。服装表演会的入场券被严格控制,只限于外贸界与服装界的官员和技术人员“内部观摩”。 皮尔·卡丹回忆说:“第一次去中国时,我到了许多地方。我是第一个让中国人了解什么叫时尚的西方人。我很像马可·波罗,因为我们都具有冒险精神。”
皮尔·卡丹带来了“时装”和“品牌”的概念,讲究穿衣服要穿“牌子货”。皮尔·卡丹也成了中国“时尚”的启蒙者,一波比一波繁华的时装潮流、一个比一个华丽的奢侈品牌就前赴后继地来了。
In March 1979, Pierre Cardin, a French fashion designer, was invited to China. He was the first international fashion master to come to China. He led 12 foreign fashion models to hold a French fashion show at the National Culture Palace in Beijing. In that year's China, the streets were still flooded with a "blue ocean". Entrance tickets for fashion shows are strictly controlled and are restricted to "internal observation" by officials and technicians in the foreign trade and fashion sectors. Pierre Cardin recalled: "When I first went to China, I went to many places. I am the first Westerner to let the Chinese know what fashion is. I'm like Marco Polo because we all have the spirit of adventure."

Pierre Cardin introduced the concepts of "fashion" and "brand" and emphasized wearing "brand goods" when dressing. Pierre Cardin has also become the enlightener of China's "fashion". Waves of more prosperous fashion trends and luxury brands have come one after another.

改革开放初期的模特
服饰的变化是一个人精神面貌的最重要体现。20世纪80年代穿着“的确良”白衬衫的女青年显得那么单纯,和那个时代一样。随后,80年代中期,城市里开始流行红裙子,女孩子脱去了暗淡的外衣,穿着色彩鲜艳的编织毛衣,留住美丽,一场时装的革命正在悄然而来。时髦的男青年一边跳着霹雳舞,一边穿着喇叭裤、戴着蛤蟆镜,这就是那个年代的“时尚”。喇叭裤,包紧了臀部,裤脚管很大,像喇叭,兼具扫地功能。随后,连体裤、哈伦裤、健美裤、蕾丝裙、中性套装、露脐装……你方唱罢我登场,各领风骚几个月,时尚,就是一阵风,是一个时代的印记。
90年代以后,中国服装至少在高端人群中已经实现了与世界的同步。人们的生活向小康过渡,思想观念更为开放。人们的服饰在急速变化,穿衣打扮讲求个性和多变,很难用一种款式或色彩来概括时尚潮流,强调个性、不追逐流行本身也成为一种时尚。
北京人的“住”
改革开放初期,我国的住房制度是福利分房,绝大多数城镇居民的房屋是租赁单位或者房屋管理部门的,只有少数居民拥有属于自己的房屋。“住房靠国家,分房按等级”,房子面积分配的大小要根据级别和家里人口的数量。一般是一家三四口人,甚至老少三代一起吃、住、生活。人口多、住宅面积小是当时最常见的普通居民生活状况。1978年,全国城镇居民人均居住面积仅3.6平方米,缺房户达869万,占城市总户数的近一半。
The change of dress is the most important embodiment of a person's spiritual outlook. In the 1980s, the young women in the "real good" white shirt looked so simple, just like those in that era. Then, in the mid-1980s, red skirts became popular in cities. Girls took off their dim clothes and wore brightly colored knitted sweaters to keep their beauty. A fashion revolution was quietly coming. Fashionable young men and women were wearing bellbottoms and Toad glasses while breakdancing, which was the "fashion" of that era. Bell trousers, tightly wrapped buttocks, trouser feet tube is large, like a horn, both with sweeping function. Subsequently, pants, Hallen pants, bodybuilding pants, lace skirts, neutral suits, umbilical outfits... You sing and I come on stage, each leading fashion for several months, fashion, is a gust of wind, is a mark of the times.

Since the 1990s, Chinese clothing has been synchronized with the world at least among high-end people. People's life is transiting to a well-off society and their ideas are more open. People's clothes are changing rapidly. Dressing and dressing emphasize individuality and variety. It is difficult to generalize fashion trends with one style or color. It is also a fashion to emphasize individuality and not to pursue fashion itself.

Beijing People's "Living"

At the beginning of the reform and opening up, the housing system of our country was welfare housing distribution. Most of the houses of urban residents were rental units or housing management departments. Only a few residents owned their own houses. "Housing depends on the state, housing distribution according to grade", the size of the allocation of housing area should be based on the level and the number of people in the family. Usually a family of three or four people or even three generations of old and young people eat, live and live together. Large population and small residential area were the most common living conditions of ordinary residents at that time. In 1978, the per capita living area of urban residents in China was only 3.6 square meters, with 8.69 million households lacking housing, accounting for nearly half of the total number of urban households.

待拆迁的长沙东二环筒子楼

北京人的“行”
从“自行车王国”到说走就走的旅行
20世纪70年代末,刚刚从“文革”走出来的中国老百姓,绝不会梦想有一天会开上私家车。
40年前,中国是名副其实的“自行车王国”,自行车是主要的交通工具。购买自行车要凭票,每年一个单位最多能分到十几张购车票,能有幸分到票的人自然不多。当时人们上下班的交通工具,除了公交车外,绝大多数都骑自行车或步行。永久、凤凰、飞鸽等品牌的自行车开始风靡中国。那时,有一辆自行车的感觉不亚于现在有辆轿车,骑“永久” 就像开奔驰一样有面子,而一辆“凤凰”就像现在有一辆宝马一样。
Beijing People's "Daily travel"

From "The Kingdom of Bicycles" to "Walk-and-Talk" Travel

In the late 1970s, the Chinese people who had just come out of the Cultural Revolution would never dream of driving a private car one day.

Forty years ago, China was a real "kingdom of bicycles" and bicycles were the main means of transportation. Bicycles are purchased on the basis of tickets. Each unit can get up to a dozen tickets a year. Naturally, few people are lucky to get tickets. At that time, most people used to ride bicycles or walk on their way to and from work, except for buses. Permanent, Phoenix, Pigeon and other brands of bicycles have become popular in China. At that time, the feeling of having a bicycle was no less than that of an existing car. Riding "Forever" was like driving a Mercedes-Benz, and a "Phoenix" was like having a BMW now.

1982年,北京街头停放的自行车

1990年第一届北京车展,长城汽车工业公司二分厂
生产的轿车,人们新奇地围在车旁
今天的我们,外出可以用共享单车低碳出行,可以坐时速高达350公里的“复兴号”高铁,可以坐豪华轮船周游列国,坐飞机比当年骑自行车都常见。据《宁夏日报》报道,即使在经济相对不发达的甘肃固原,从固原启程,乘飞机飞至银川出差、飞至西安购物、飞至福州旅游,当地越来越多的群众开始习惯于打“飞的”。
“四大件”的兴衰
四大件,又名“三转一响”,是中国在20世纪50年代后期以后出现的一个名词,指的是当时为各个家庭所希望拥有的四件家庭物品。这四件家庭物品分别为:收音机、自行车、缝纫机及手表。这几乎是一个家境非常好的人才能够拥有的奢侈品。这“四大件”会让上了年岁的人如数家珍,在其头脑中打下了不可磨灭的烙印。一块手表曾经就是她的嫁妆,而一辆崭新的“飞鸽”或“永久”也许使他当上了新郎。
进入20世纪80年代,随着凭票供应时代的终结,取而代之的是新“四大件”的诞生:黑白电视、电冰箱、洗衣机、录音机。电子时代的到来极大地丰富和改善了每个家庭的家居生活。
Today, we can travel by sharing bicycles and low carbon, take the "Fuxing" high-speed railway at 350 kilometers per hour, and travel around the world by luxury ships. It is more common to travel by air than by bicycle in those days. According to the Ningxia Daily, even in Guyuan, Gansu, where the economy is relatively underdeveloped, starting from Guyuan, flying to Yinchuan for business, to Xi'an for shopping and to Fuzhou for tourism, more and more local people are getting used to flying.

The Rise and Fall of "Four Big Things"

Four big items, also known as "three turns and one sound", are a noun appearing after the late 1950s in China. They refer to four household items that were hoped to be owned by various families at that time. These four household items are radio, bicycle, sewing machine and watch. It's almost a luxury that a person with a very good family can own. These "four major items" will make the elderly as many as family treasures, in their minds laid an indelible brand. A watch used to be her dowry, and a brand new "flying pigeon" or "permanent" might make him a groom.

In the 1980s, with the end of the voucher supply era, a new "four big pieces" were born: black and white TV, refrigerator, washing machine, and tape recorder. The arrival of the electronic age has greatly enriched and improved the home life of every family.

上海无线电十八厂飞跃牌9寸黑白电视机Feiyue Brand 9-inch Black-and-White Television Set of Shanghai Radio 18 Factory

20世纪80年代东芝录音机Toshiba tape recorder in the 1980s
新“四大件”走入家庭没多久,就由流行走向了没落。黑白电视的魅力哪里比得上彩色电视?录音机和“家庭影院”放在一起,明显就相形见绌了。还有家用电话、空调、电脑、微波炉……
今年是改革开放40周年,中国进行改革开放,顺应了中国人民追求美好生活的历史要求。北京作为共和国的首都,更是发生翻天覆地的变化。人民的生活水平提高了,生活质量变好了。但高速发展的同时,也暴露出了诸多问题。环境质量变差、人们内心不在朴实,更看重钱财。这些也同样是经济快速发展所带来的弊端。北京这座有着浓厚文化底蕴的城市,如今正在被人们的各种欲望所吞噬。如果我们只注重经济发展,而忽视文化的建设,我们终究会被我们所建设的文明所毁灭。只有经济和文化同时发展,才能让这座古老的城池焕发新的魅力。
It was not long before the new "Four Big Things" entered the family, they went from fashion to decline. Where is the charm of black-and-white TV comparable to that of color TV? When tape recorders and "home theaters" are put together, they obviously dwarf each other. And home phones, air conditioners, computers, microwave ovens...

This year marks the 40th anniversary of the reform and opening up. China's reform and opening up conforms to the historical requirements of the Chinese people in pursuit of a better life. As the capital of the Republic, Beijing has undergone tremendous changes. People's living standards have improved and their quality of life has improved. But at the same time, it also exposes many problems. The quality of the environment is getting worse, people are not honest in heart, but pay more attention to money. These are also the drawbacks of rapid economic development. Beijing, a city with a strong cultural heritage, is now being swallowed up by people's desires. If we only focus on economic development and neglect cultural construction, we will eventually be destroyed by the civilization we have built. Only with the simultaneous development of economy and culture can this ancient city be rejuvenated with a new charm.

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