Endo- and ekzokannabinoidy can stimulate the activity of ganglion cells, increasing the sensitivity of the visual analyzer. This is evidenced by results of a study conducted by researchers from McGill University.
Cannabinoids - a group of terpene compounds of plant and endogenous origin. The nature of the cannabinoids found in Cannabaceae family of plants, such as hemp and hops, and products are valid psychotropic substances - marijuana and hashish. In turn endocannabinoids are neurotransmitters that bind to the cannabinoid receptors in the brain. Such compounds act as signaling molecules that are contained in the bilayer membrane of all body cells. Endocannabinoid 2-AG (2-arahidonoilglitserol) was detected in the composition of human breast milk and is able to suppress cortisol - "stress hormone".
In the new study, Canadian neuroscientists have studied the effect of cannabinoids on vision tadpoles. Scientists have deduced the line in Xenopus laevis frog tadpoles in the lab. The animals were then injected alternately different chemical compounds with synthetic cannabinoids (glycine, picrotoxin or other) at a concentration of from 100 nanometers to 100 micrometers. Thereafter, the electroporation method in their retinal cells was implemented genetically encoded calcium indicator GCaMP6m. 24 hours later, tadpoles immobilized and fixed expression of the protein in the retina through a multiphoton microscope with a resonant scanner and the immersion objective.
Multiple repetition of the experiment have shown that cannabinoids increase the activity of retinal ganglion cells. This was due to activation CB1R cannabinoid receptor located on the outside of the cell wall. As a result of the activation CB1R decreased levels of chloride, took place hyperpolarization of the cell membrane and formed electrical impulses neurons with greater frequency. Due to the sensitivity of hyperpolarization tadpoles grew and they were better able to distinguish faint objects in low light. It is noteworthy that previous studies have pointed to the negative effects of cannabinoids on synaptic communication.
"Our work has clarified the mechanism of regulation of frequency of electrical impulses in the brain by cannabinoids. However, it is important to confirm the results in mammals. Despite the technical difficulties are now a study should be conducted on the retina of mice or even kultivirovannyh human cells, "- said Professor Ed Rutheyzer.