System Contract Part #1 — Block Producer Rewards

in blockchain •  last year  (edited)

This is, a team comprised by some people who have passion and interest in EOS. We would like to write a series of articles to share about the system contract and wish you can enjoy it. Contact us via Eosio.SG: Telegram, Medium.

In eos network, eosio.system contract enables users to 1) stake tokens, and then vote on producers (or worker proposals), 2) proxy their voting influence to other users, 3) register producers, 4) claim producer rewards, 5) delegate bandwidth and push other necessary actions to keep blockchain system running.

In this series, we will go through this contract and talk about what is going on inside this contract and how to use it.

From this article, questions on Who is getting rewards, How much is the rewards, and How to claim rewards will be discussed successively.

*All codes present are based on commit of 9aa57f9


  • Block producers get rewards of block production & votes proportion;
  • Approx. 1.6 tokens issued on every second;
  • For each producer, rewards claim can be approved at most once per 24 hours.

Who Is Getting Rewards?

21 active Block Producers (BP) and 100 candidates will be determined from voting. BPs are able to claim rewards from both the number of blocks they have produced as well as their votes proportion, i.e. Fixed Rewards & Dynamic Rewards respectively.

BPs have to initiate rewards claim from eos system, some related system level parameters are defined in global_state_singleton as follows:

@Global States

parameter namedescription
payment_per_blockNumber of tokens assigned for one block production
payment_to_eos_bucketNumber of tokens assigned to bucket per second (bucket is used for dynamic rewards claim)
first_block_time_in_cycleMark the start of a cycle
blocks_per_cycleBlock count of a complete cycle
last_bucket_fill_timeLast bucket fill time, usually be upon a new cycle
eos_bucketBucket tokens balance, to be transferred to producers as dynamic rewards


How Much Will Producers Get?

Amount of rewards is related to global parameters(e.g. inflation rate) and BP contribution. Based on the 5% inflation rate, approx. 1.6 tokens are issued system wise.

Producer table includes information of all registered producers, which are widely used in system contract. Some columns related to producer rewards are listed below.

@Producer Table

ownerProducer account name
total_votesNumber of votes the producer has got
prefsEosio parameters of the producer
per_block_paymentsFixed rewards available
last_rewards_claimLast claim time, used to prevent from claiming too frequent
last_produced_block_timeLast time produced

Per Second Payment Calculation

The amount of all rewards giving away is calculated using system_contract::payment_per_block, determined by the product of system parameter max_inflation_rate (by default is 5%) and median of percent_of_max_inflation_rate from 21 active producers.




Currently there is no constraints on BPs' parameter percent_of_max_inflation_rate. If we assume it to be 100%, based on the 5% inflation rate from code and continuous rate formula, maximum 1.5898 eos tokens are issued per second (might be reduced if max_inflation_rate is modified in official release). This amount will be split into 2 "almost equal" parts for Fixed & Dynamic Rewards.

Update Producer States From Election

After an election, some of parameters related to rewards are being set, which are to be used in rewards calculation.

  1. The amount of token calculated in the previous section will be added into parameters.payment_per_block for Fixed Rewards and parameters.payment_to_eos_bucket for Dynamic Rewards.

    void system_contract::update_elected_producers(time cycle_time) {
      global_state_singleton gs( _self, _self );
      auto parameters = gs.exists() ? gs.get() :    get_default_parameters();
      auto half_of_percentage =       parameters.percent_of_max_inflation_rate / 2;
      auto other_half_of_percentage = parameters.percent_of_max_inflation_rate - half_of_percentage;
      parameters.payment_per_block = payment_per_block(half_of_percentage);
      parameters.payment_to_eos_bucket = payment_per_block(other_half_of_percentage);
      parameters.blocks_per_cycle = blocks_per_producer * schedule.producers.size();
  2. Corresponding tokens are issued to eosio account for further giveaway.

        auto issue_quantity = parameters.blocks_per_cycle * (parameters.payment_per_block + parameters.payment_to_eos_bucket);
        INLINE_ACTION_SENDER(eosio::token, issue)( N(eosio.token), {{N(eosio),N(active)}},
                                                 {N(eosio), issue_quantity, std::string("producer pay")} );
        set_blockchain_parameters( parameters );
        gs.set( parameters, _self );

Init New Cycle

Rewards rules are set upon every new cycle with the action of system_contract::onblock, inside this action, some global states and producer table will be updated accordingly.

  1. Update cycle

    void system_contract::onblock(const block_header& header) {
    // update parameters if it's a new cycle
    bool system_contract::update_cycle(time block_time) {
        static const uint32_t slots_per_cycle = parameters.blocks_per_cycle;
        const uint32_t time_slots = block_time - parameters.first_block_time_in_cycle;
        if (time_slots >= slots_per_cycle) {
            time beginning_of_cycle = block_time - (time_slots % slots_per_cycle);
  1. Modify producer table with Fixed Rewards that is to be claimed.

    void system_contract::onblock(const block_header& header) {
        //            const system_token_type block_payment = parameters.payment_per_block;
        const asset block_payment = parameters.payment_per_block;
        auto prod = producers_tbl.find(producer);
        if ( prod != producers_tbl.end() ) {
            producers_tbl.modify( prod, 0, [&](auto& p) {
                    p.per_block_payments += block_payment;
                    p.last_produced_block_time = header.timestamp;
  2. Fill eos_bucket for Dynamic Rewards.

    void system_contract::onblock(const block_header& header) {
        const uint32_t num_of_payments = header.timestamp - parameters.last_bucket_fill_time;
        //            const system_token_type to_eos_bucket = num_of_payments * parameters.payment_to_eos_bucket;
        const asset to_eos_bucket = num_of_payments * parameters.payment_to_eos_bucket;
        parameters.last_bucket_fill_time = header.timestamp;
        parameters.eos_bucket += to_eos_bucket;
        gs.set( parameters, _self );

How To Claim Rewards

BPs can claim rewards periodically (at most once a day), by pushing claimrewards actions. Fixed & Dynamic Rewards are calculated & transferred from eosio to the claimer.

BP Validation

  1. Check whether the account name is the same with the push sender, which means producers cannot claim rewards on behalf of others.
  2. Check whether the push sender is among the producer list, and being active (activity check might be removed in the coming versions).
  3. Check whether producer is claiming too frequent, no more than once a day.
void system_contract::claimrewards(const account_name& owner) {
        eosio_assert(current_sender() == account_name(), "claimrewards can not be part of a deferred transaction");
    producers_table producers_tbl( _self, _self );
    auto prod = producers_tbl.find(owner);
    eosio_assert(prod != producers_tbl.end(), "account name is not in producer list");
    eosio_assert(prod->active(), "producer is not active"); // QUESTION: Why do we want to prevent inactive producers from claiming their earned rewards?
    if( prod->last_rewards_claim > 0 ) {
        eosio_assert(now() >= prod->last_rewards_claim + seconds_per_day, "already claimed rewards within a day");

Fixed Rewards Calculation

This amount is set at every beginning of a new cycle mentioned above.

void system_contract::claimrewards(const account_name& owner) {
    //            system_token_type rewards = prod->per_block_payments;
    eosio::asset rewards = prod->per_block_payments;

Votes Calculation

Dynamic rewards are calculated based on votes proportion, the number total of votes is obtained by iterating the producer table.

  1. Define a pointer index to the end of the producer table. This calculation will loop from newer registered producer to older.

    void system_contract::claimrewards(const account_name& owner) {
        auto idx = producers_tbl.template get_index<N(prototalvote)>();
        auto itr = --idx.end();     
  2. Loop from the tail to head, sum active producers' votes up into total_producer_votes. Which is all valid votes across the network. num_of_payed_producers = 121, defined in the system contract, consists of 21 BPs and 100 candidates.

    void system_contract::claimrewards(const account_name& owner) {
        bool is_among_payed_producers = false;                
        uint128_t total_producer_votes = 0;
        uint32_t n = 0;
        while( n < num_of_payed_producers ) {                  
            if( !is_among_payed_producers ) {            
                if( itr->owner == owner )   
                    is_among_payed_producers = true;
            if( itr->active() ) {
                total_producer_votes += itr->total_votes;
            if( itr == idx.begin() ) {

Dynamic Rewards Calculation

  1. Get global states parameters.
  2. Calculate Dynamic Rewards by
  3. Add dynamic rewards to rewards, this amount will be the final one transferred to the BP.
  4. Deduct this dynamic rewards from the global gs.eos_bucket, the remaining amount will be claimed by others.
   if (is_among_payed_producers && total_producer_votes > 0) {
      global_state_singleton gs( _self, _self ); 
      if( gs.exists() ) {
         auto parameters = gs.get();
         //                  auto share_of_eos_bucket = system_token_type( static_cast<uint64_t>( (prod->total_votes * parameters.eos_bucket.quantity) / total_producer_votes ) ); // This will be improved in the future when total_votes becomes a double type.
         auto share_of_eos_bucket = eosio::asset( static_cast<int64_t>( (prod->total_votes * parameters.eos_bucket.amount) / total_producer_votes ) );
         rewards += share_of_eos_bucket;
         parameters.eos_bucket -= share_of_eos_bucket;
         gs.set( parameters, _self );

Transfer Rewards To The Producer

  1. Update producer table, set last_reward_claim to the current time, and reset block production rewards per_block_payments to be 0.

    void system_contract::claimrewards(const account_name& owner) {
            //            eosio_assert( rewards > system_token_type(), "no rewards available to claim" );
        eosio_assert( rewards > asset(0, S(4,EOS)), "no rewards available to claim" );
        producers_tbl.modify( prod, 0, [&](auto& p) {
            p.last_rewards_claim = now();
            p.per_block_payments.amount = 0;
  2. Push an inline action, transferring corresponding amount from eosio account to the push sending producer.

    void system_contract::claimrewards(const account_name& owner) {
        INLINE_ACTION_SENDER(eosio::token, transfer)( N(eosio.token), {N(eosio),N(active)}, { N(eosio), owner, rewards, std::string("producer claiming rewards") } );

For the time being rewards are distributed from a super user eosio, which means additional tokens will be created and assigned to the same account who is able to issue them upon the whole network launch.


  1. Block producers get Fixed Rewards from blocks they are to produce, and Dynamic Rewards from proportion of votes they possess.

  2. Payment per block might fluctuate based on BPs' parameters. Based on current configuration, 1.5898 eos tokens will become "visible" every second, which likely to be reduced upon release.

  3. Producers have to initiate rewards claim from the system, no producer is able to claim more than once a day.

  4. Some imperfect implementations (lack of constraints, etc) from the current code, we assume this is a stopgap for easy test and look forward to an improvement in the coming versions.

In the following articles, we are going to talk about some detailed implementation about voting process, including producer registration, producer voting and proxy related stuff.

Stay tuned with Eosio.SG: Telegram, Medium.

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Great article @eosiosg! Note that the payment algorithm changed and the number of BPs that are paid is now based on whether they earn at least 100 tokens per day. It would be great if you’d update the article.

Thanks @gleehokie! yup it has been changed, while we can't update the content of this article since it was posted more than 7 days already, we would like to post a new article to make the update in the future :)