We are now early July 1921 and the war wasnt at its end. It was like it was starting over again. To carry out the Treaty of Sèvres, rejected by the government of Ankara, the Greeks prepared for a new attack on the Turks by bringing and spreading violence to Anatolia. On 10 July 1921, this general attack of the enemies finally began with reunited forces along the entire western front. As the operation progressed, violent clashes broke out between the Greek and Turkish armed forces. In terms of manpower, tools and equipment, however, the Greeks, who occupied more than the Turkish forces, occupied many places; Afyon, Eskisehir, Kutahya, Bilecik repeatedly fell into the hands of the enemy.
On 18 July 1921, Mustafa Kemal Pasha, President of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey, decided to go from Ankara to Karacahisar to the Western Front in person because of the alarming news that had reached him. In view of the Greek progress and the support they received from the other states, he saw the need for a new strategy to prevent further losses for the limited Turkish army under the circumstances of that day and gave the following order to his front commander İsmet Pasha:
"After the army was gathered in the north and south of Eskisehir, it is necessary to distance yourself with the enemy army so that you can assemble and strengthen the army. It is convenient to retreat east of Sakarya! "
Following this decision, the Turkish army marched on the western front east of the Sakarya River on 25 July 1921. This decision was appropriate with regard to the warfare because the lost and decreasing forces of the Turkish army against the Greek attacks decreased incessantly, and thus the long-standing resistance without retreat in the held positions would be the cause of much more losses.
In the history of the Turkish Revolution, the "Kütahya-Eskişehir Wars" were one of the most serious. When the Turkish troops withdrew to the east of Sakarya, there were repeated clashes with the Greek and the Turkish troops. The number of Greek troops was more than twice as large as that of the Turks, because they got supplies from the other states again and again. There were glorious losses and wounds. During the retreat to the east of Sakarya there were more than 40,000 fallen soldiers on the Turkish side during the collision and retreat. The Turks had also lost tools, equipment and weapons during this tragical moments.
In the days of the withdrawal of the turkisch army to the east of the Sakarya River, the Council of Ministers decided to move the government centre from Ankara to Kayseri in order to prevent a new Greek attack. However, it was necessary to obtain the agreement of the Assembly. The government's decision was announced at the secret meeting of the Grand National Assembly. The Parliament was outraged and replied with the following words:
"Are we here to flee or to fight the enemy?"
Representatives of the nation were not willing to extradite Ankara without war. The goal was to fight to the last hill. After the enthusiastic speeches, the assembly did not accept the transfer to Kayseri. On the contrary, the assembly decided to defend Ankara and make the necessary preparations.
In spite of all these difficult conditions, the leaders of the National Resistance did not give up, especially Mustafa Kemal Pasha, who despite his retreat to Sakarya in the East still believed in a great counterstrike and thus gave hope to all.
The words of Mustafa Kemal Pasha:
"In the not too distant future, if things continue like this, perhaps in the next few days, the Greek army will run out and eventually will be destroyed there."
The most important condition for success, however, was that everyone believed in this conclusion. For this reason, it was necessary for each of the soldiers to focus their concentration and strength on the enemy. It should also not be forgotten that the Turkish army should not go where the enemy wanted it to go, but the enemy should be taken where the Turks wanted it to go. For only in this way could the enemy be dealt a harsh blow. In this view of point, the retreat, when it was necessary to leave the places to the enemy, was not important. It was necessary, before the Turkish military fell into despair, to implement these things, because instability would bring nothing good.
Despite this belief and the efforts of leader Mustafa Kemal Pasha, who had commanded the retreat east of Sakarya, the losses had reflected the national assembly. This heavy loss, which occurred in the creation of a new army, inevitably caused doubt and some circles were concerned and restless.
This delicate issue gave rise on August 4, 1921, to exciting talks about the military situation and the formation of a commander-in-chief in the secret session of the Great National Assembly. The representatives sought a way out to revive the tired army and save the country from disaster. Everyone agreed that Mustafa Kemal Pasha would be the most suitable for this position. Because he is an undefeated commander in all the battles he has taken part in. For this reason, all discussion came to the conclusion that he must assume the position of Commander-in-Chief. Like his followers, his opponents and rivals also wanted that the great commander take over the army. The vast majority of the assembly believes that there is no other way to save the nation.
Some representatives sent the sincere and encouraging words to Mustafa Kemal Pasha:
"You are a great commander!"
"You are a great soldier, and you proved it in the Battle of Canakkale."
"What are you waiting for to prove it again?"
"The enemy has advanced to Sakarya. What are you waiting for?"
These cries were indeed the voice of the national will and invited the great hero to the army.
The opponents of Mustafa Kemal Pasha sat in the own ranks and also in the national assembly. The reason for their support was that the whole responsibility lay in a circumstance of hopelessness and despair at Mustafa Kemal Pasha. With this fact, that the great leader will be the commander, all opponents would be released from all guilt if the Turks were defeated.