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This simply means blood (hemo) in the semen (-spermia).
It may sound weird but this is actually a common condition, however many episodes go unnoticed. In most patients this resolves spontaneously and no further medical care is necessary but it is the first sign of a disease of the genital/urinary system in a few persons.
To avoid presumptions, i'll remind you that semen is the body fluid (usually whitish or yellowish and sticky) that carries sperm cells. It is the secreted by the seminal vesicles to act as a medium for the sperm cells produced by the testes. Semen travels through the prostate gland via the ejaculatory duct into the male urethra.
Patient often complains of Brown or reddish semen. Listed below are warning signs that should make one take hematospermia more seriously
- Persistence of the symptom in up to 10 episodes
- Symptoms persisting more than 2 months
- Men older than 40 years with associated blood in urine (hematuria).
- Hypertensive patients
- Other urinary symptoms like urinating more frequently than usual (frequency), severe urge to urinate (urgency), urinating up to three times at night (nocturia), straining to urinate etc associated with hematospermia points to a more sinister cause.
Hematospermia like any other disease occurs as a result of a breach in the normal body anatomy (structure) or physiology (function). In over half of the cases the cause is declared idiopathic i.e. unknown for whatever reason.
Known causes of hematospermia include
- Pelvic instrumentation i.e. procedures that cause trauma to the organs in the pelvis especially the prostate as seen in prostate biopsy, which is the process of taking a piece of the prostate to study under a microscopic slide. The injury to the prostate gland causes bleeding into the ejaculatory duct, thereby manifesting as hemetospermia. This usually resolves within a month
Transurethral resection of the prostate(a surgical procedure done for an abnormally enlarged prostate) is also a cause of hematospermia.
- Trauma to the pelvis resulting from road traffic accidents, fall from heights and fall astride.
- Infection of the seminal vesicles, prostate and urethra.
- Abnormal widening of the tiny blood vessels of the prostate (telangiectasias and varices) and seminal vesicle cysts
- Prostate Cancer and other malignancies are implicated in about 2% of cases.
- Systemic infections like Tuberculosis and HIV.
- Bleeding disorders
As scary as the above disease mentioned sound, i wish to remind you once again that most cases are self-limited i.e. resolve spontaneously, some are just a one off episode and another good number are from infection that responds to proper treatment. Just walk into that clinic today and get checked up.
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