History of the Islamic Kingdom of the Aceh Sultanate - Sumatra.
The Aceh Sultanate is located north of the island of Sumatra with the capital city of Bandar Aceh Darussalam. The first Sultan who ruled the Aceh Sultanate as well as its founder was Sultan Ali Mughayat Syah which was crowned on Sunday, 1 Jumadil early 913 H or on 8 September 1507. In that long history (1496 - 1903), Aceh developed a pattern and system of military education, committed to opposing European imperialism, has an orderly and systematic system of government, establishes scientific study centers, and establishes diplomatic relations with other countries.
The beginning of the Standing of the Aceh Sultanate.
The Aceh Darussalam Sultanate began its administration when the kingdom of Samudera Pasai was in a period of collapse. Samudera Pasai was attacked by the Majapahit Kingdom until it experienced a setback around the 14th century, precisely in 1360. At the end of the history of the first Islamic kingdom in the archipelago, the seeds of the Aceh Darussalam Sultanate began to be born. The Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam was built on the ruins of Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms that had existed before, such as the Kingdom of Indra Purba, the Kingdom of Indra Purwa, the Kingdom of Indra Patra, and the Kingdom of Indrapura (Indrapuri).
Sultan Ali Mughayat established the Aceh Sultanate in 1496 which at first the kingdom stood on the territory of the kingdom of lamuri. The government of the Aceh Sultanate then subdued and unified several surrounding kingdom territories including Daya, Pedir, Lidie, Nakur. Then in 1524 the Pasai region was part of the sovereignty of the Aceh Sultanate followed by Aru.
relics of the kingdom of Islam aceh darussalam
The legacy of the Aceh Darussalam Sultanate
From the findings traced based on the research of tombstones that have been found, namely from the tombstone of Sultan Firman Syah, one of the sultans who once ruled the Aceh Sultanate, obtained information that the Aceh Sultanate had its capital in Kutaraja (Banda Aceh).
Information about the existence of the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam was increasingly revealed by the discovery of the tombstone which turned out to be the tomb of Sultan Ali Mughayat Syah. In the founding gravestone of the Aceh Darussalam Sultanate in Banda Aceh's XII Cage, it was stated that Sultan Ali Mughayat Syah passed away on 12 Dhu al-Hijah in 936 Hijriah or on 7 August 1530. In addition, another gravestone was found in the City of Alam, which was the tomb of Sultan Ali Mughayat Syah's father, Syamsu Syah, who said that Syamsu Syah died on 14 Muharram 737 Hijriah. Another tombstone found in Kuta Alam is the tomb of King Ibrahim who later discovered that he was the younger brother of Sultan Ali Mughayat Shah.
According to the notes written in the inscription, King Ibrahim passed away on 21 Muharram in 930 Hijriah or coincided with November 30, 1523. King Ibrahim was the most brave and loyal right hand of Sultan Ali Mughayat Shah. Ibrahim was the one who led the Aceh Darussalam attacks on Portuguese, Pedir, Daya, and Samudera Pasai, until finally Ibrahim died as a hero in the great battle. The dates found on the inscriptions above naturally mean to be used as a guide in determining the course of historical records in Aceh in the intended period (H. Mohammad Said a, 1981: 157).
Sultan Ali Mughayat Shah ruled the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam for only 10 years. According to an inscription found from the tombstone of Sultan Ali Mughayat Syah, the first leader of Aceh Darussalam died in 12 Dhu al-Hijrah in 936 Hijriah or coincided with the date of August 7, 1530 AD. Although the reign of Sultan Mughayat Syah was relatively short, he succeeded in building a large and sturdy Aceh empire. Sultan Ali Mughayat Shah also laid the foundations of the foreign policy of the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam, among others:
- To fulfill their own needs so that they are not dependent on others.
- Establish closer friendships with other Islamic kingdoms in the archipelago.
- Be alert to Western colonialism.
- Receive assistance from experts from outside parties.
- Carry out Islamic da'wah throughout the archipelago.
After the death of Sultan Mughayat Syah, the basics of this political policy were still carried out by his successor sultans. As the successor to the throne of the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam, the eldest son of the late Sultan Mughayat Syah was named Salah ad-Din as the new ruler of Aceh Darussalam. Under the rule of Sultan Salah ad-Din, the Aceh Darussalam Sultanate attacked Malacca in 1537 but was unsuccessful. In 1539, the leadership of the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam was transferred to the youngest son of Mughayat Syah, namely Ala ad-Din Ri`ayat Shah al-Kahar or what is often known as Sultan Mansur Syah. This brother of Salah ad-Din slowly confirmed the authority of the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam
n do some breakthroughs. Not long after being crowned, in the same year Sultan Ala ad-Din Ri` the Shah of al-Kahar raided the Batak people who lived in the interior. According to Mendez Pinto, a traveler who stopped in Aceh in 1539, the Aceh Sultanate's army under the leadership of Sultan Ala ad-Din Ri 'of the Syah al-Kahar, consisted of soldiers from among others from Turkey, Kambay and Malabar (Lombard, 2007: 65-66)
Although the Sultan is considered to be the highest ruler, but in fact it is always controlled by the rich or hulubalang. The Acehnese saga said that the Sultan who was forcibly demolished including Sultan Sri Alam was overthrown in 1579 because of his temper which had exceeded the limit in distributing royal property to his followers. the replacement of Sultan Zainal Abidin was killed a few months later because of his cruelty and because of his addiction to hunting and animal fighting. King-Kingdom and wealthy people offered a crown to Alaiddin Riayat Shah Sayyid al-Mukamil of the Darul Kamal Dynasty in 1589. He immediately ended a period of instability by suppressing the opposite wealth while strengthening his position as the sole ruler of the Aceh Sultanate whose impact was felt on the next sultan.
The Aceh Sultanate experienced the widest period of expansion and influence during the leadership of Sultan Iskandar Muda (1607-1636) or Sultan Meukuta Alam. During his leadership, Aceh conquered Pahang which was the main source of tin. In 1629, the Aceh Sultanate attacked Portuguese in Melaka with a fleet of 500 warships and 60,000 naval troops. This attack was in an effort to expand Aceh's dominance over the Malacca Strait and the Malay peninsula. Unfortunately this expedition failed, even though in the same year Aceh occupied Kedah and brought its population to Aceh.
During the time of Sultan Alaidin Righayat Shah Sayed Al-Mukammil (Sultan Iskandar Muda's grandfather) a diplomatic mission was sent to the Netherlands in 1602 with the leadership of Tuanku Abdul Hamid. The Sultan also sent letters to various world leaders such as the Turkish Sultan Selim II, Prince Maurit van Nassau, and Queen Elizabeth I. All this was done to strengthen Aceh's position of power.
Entry of Western Colonialism
The arrival of Europeans, in this case the Portuguese as Europeans who first arrived in Aceh, became one of the main factors of the collapse of the Kingdom of Samudera Pasai, as well as the Majapahit attacks. In 1508, or less than a year after Sultan Ali Mughayat Syah proclaimed the establishment of the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam, the first Portuguese fleet led by Diogo Lopez de Sequeira arrived in the waters of the Malacca Strait. Armada de Sequeira consists of four ships with war equipment. However, the arrival of a group of prospective Portuguese colonizers who first did not produce brilliant results and were forced to retreat due to resistance from the army of the Malacca Sultanate army.
The arrival of the Portuguese fleet, which subsequently has not shown an encouraging increase. In May 1521, the first ruler of the Aceh Darussalam Sultanate, Sultan Ali Mughayat Syah, led the resistance and defeated the Portuguese fleet led by Jorge de Britto who was killed in the fighting in the waters of Aceh. In the face of the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam and the courage of Sultan Ali Mughayat Syah, the Portuguese persuaded the Kingdom of Pedir and Samudera Pasai to support it.
After experiencing defeat from the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam, the Portuguese fleet then fled to the Kingdom of Pedir, but the Aceh Darussalam troops continued to pursue and successfully controlled the territory of the Kingdom of Pedir. The Portuguese together with Sultan Ahmad, King of the Kingdom of Pedir, fled again and sought refuge in Samudera Pasai. The forces of Sultan Ali Mughayat Syah continued his pursuit and succeeded in breaking Pasai's resistance in 1524. A large number of spoils in the form of war equipment, including cannons, were used by the Aceh Darussalam army to expel the Portuguese from Aceh.
The defeat of the Portuguese was very embarrassing because the Aceh Darussalam troops received booty from Portuguese warfare which further strengthened Aceh Darussalam because of it (Said a, 1981: 187). Sultan Ali Mughayat Syah is indeed known as a brave leader and a reliable conqueror. In addition to successfully expelling the Portuguese and subjugating the Kingdom of Pedir and Samudera Pasai, the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam under the leadership of Sultan Ali Mughayat Syah, also won glory in conquering several other kingdoms in Sumatra, such as the Kingdom of Haru, the Kingdom of Deli, and the Kingdom of Power.
The decline of Aceh was caused by several factors, including the strengthening of Dutch rule on the island of Sumatra and the Malacca Strait, marked by the fall of the Minangkabau, Siak, Tiku, Tapanuli, Mandailing, Deli, Barus (1840) and Bengkulu regions into the Dutch colonial bosom. Another important factor is
there is a power struggle between the heirs of the sultanate.
Aceh Diplomat to Penang. Sit: Teuku Kadi Malikul Adil (left) and Teuku Imeum Lueng Bata (right). Around the 1870s. This can be traced earlier after the departure of Sultan Iskandar Tsani until a series of events later, in which the nobles want to reduce the strict control of the Sultan's power by raising the widow of Iskandar Tsani to be Sultanah. Some sources say that the fear of the return of the tyrant king (Sultan Iskandar Muda) is the background of the queen's appointment.
Since then a period of peace has been felt in Aceh, the Ulèëbalang are free to trade with foreign traders without having to go through the sultan's port in the capital. Pepper became the main crop that was cultivated throughout the Aceh coast so that it became the main supplier of world pepper until the late 19th century. However, some elements of society, especially from the wujudiyah, wanted the ruler to be a man with the title Sultan. They claim that the legitimate heir is still alive and living with them in the interior. The civil war broke out, the Grand Mosque, in burning, the city of Bandar Aceh was in a state of chaos and insecurity. Following up on this dispute, Kadhi Malikul Adil (a kind of great mufti) Tgk. Syech Abdurrauf As-Sinkily carried out various reforms especially concerning the division of power with the formation of three sagoe. This resulted in the sultanah / sultan's power was very weak with only full power in the Bibeueh region (direct power).
Civil war in terms of power struggles played a major role in weakening the Aceh Sultanate. During the time of Sultan Alauddin Jauhar Alamsyah (1795-1824), a descendant of the Sultan who was wasted by Sayyid Hussain claimed the crown of the sultanate by appointing his son to be Sultan Saif Al-Alam. The civil war broke out again but thanks to the help of Raffles and Koh Lay Huan, a trader from Penang in the position of Jauhar (who was able to speak French, English and Spanish) was returned. It did not end there, the civil war again occurred in the struggle for power between Tuanku Sulaiman and Tuanku Ibrahim who later held the title Sultan Mansur Syah (1857-1870).
Sultan Mansyur Syah tried his best to reinforce the already fragile sultanate. He managed to subdue the pepper kings to pay tribute to the sultan, something that the previous sultan had not been able to do. To strengthen the defense of the eastern region, the sultan sent a fleet in 1854 led by Admiral Tuanku Usen with 200 boats. This expedition was to convince Aceh's power over Deli, Langkat and Serdang. But unlucky, in 1865 Aceh lifted its foot from the area by conquering the fortress of Kampai Island.
Letter of the Sultan of Aceh Ibrahim Mansur Syah To the President of France
The Sultan also tried to form alliances with outsiders in an effort to stem Dutch aggression. He sent the envoy back to Istanbul as a confirmation of the status of Aceh as a vassal of the Ottoman Turks and sent a number of aid funds for the Crimean War. In return, Sultan Abdul Majid I sent several combat tools for Aceh. Not only with Turkey, the sultan also tried to form an alliance with France by sending a letter to the French King Louis Philippe I and the President of the French Republic II (1849). But this request was not taken seriously.
Setbacks continued with the rise of the young and weak Sultan Mahmudsyah to power. A series of diplomatic efforts to Istanbul led by Teuku Paya Bakong and Habib Abdurrahman Az-zahier to fight Dutch expansion failed. After returning to the capital, Habib competed with an Indian Teuku Commander Maharaja Tibang Muhammad for influencing the Acehnese government. Moderates tend to support Habib, but the sultan protects the Tibang Commander who is suspected of conspiring with the Dutch when negotiating in Riau.
At the end of November 1871, the so-called Sumatran Treaty was born, where it was clearly stated "Britain must escape from any demonstration of the expansion of Dutch power in any part of Sumatra. The London 1824 Treaty restrictions on Aceh were canceled." Since then, efforts to invade Aceh have been increasingly voiced, both from the Netherlands and Batavia. The Ulee Balang Aceh and special envoys of the Sultan were assigned to seek assistance to Turkey's old allies. But the conditions at that time were not possible because Turkey had just fought with Russia in Crimea. Relief efforts are also aimed at Italy, France and America but nothing. The Eight Council which was formed in Penang to gain British sympathy also could not do anything. For this reason, the Dutch established themselves to surrender the capital. March 1873, Dutch troops landed on the Mirror of Meuraksa Beach marking the beginning of the Dutch invasion of Aceh.
The Aceh War began when the Dutch declared war on Aceh on March 26, 1873
had carried out several diplomatic threats, but had failed to seize large territories. The war resumed in 1883, but again failed, and in 1892 and 1893, the Dutch considered that they had failed to seize Aceh.
Aceh Sultan Muhammad Daud Shah surrendered in the presence of General Van Heutsz.
In 1896 Dr. Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje, an Islamic expert from Leiden University who has succeeded in gaining the trust of many Acehnese leaders, advising the Dutch to embrace the Ulèëbalang, and to crush the ulamas. This suggestion was only implemented during the time of Governor General Joannes Benedictus van Heutsz. Marsose troops formed and G.C.E. Van Daalen was sent to pursue the Acehnese fighters to the interior.
In January 1903 Sultan Muhammad Daud Syah finally surrendered to the Dutch after his two wives, children and mother were first captured by the Dutch. Polem Commander Muhammad Daud, Tuanku Raja Keumala, and Tuanku Mahmud followed in the same year in September. The struggle was continued by the ulama of the descendants of Tgk. Chik di Tiro and ends when Tgk. Mahyidin di Tiro or better known as Teungku Mayed was killed in 1910 at Mount Halimun.
Sultan of Aceh
Sultan Muhammad Daud Shah Johan Sovereign, the last Sultan of Aceh who reigned in 1874-1903.
The Sultan of Aceh or Aceh Sultanah was the ruler / king of the Aceh Sultanate. The Sultan was originally based in Gampông Pande, Bandar Aceh Darussalam then moved to the Inner Darud of the World in the area around the present Aceh Governor's pavilion. From the beginning until 1873 the capital remained at Bandar Aceh Darussalam, which in turn was due to the War with the Dutch moving to Keumala, an area in the interior of Pidie.
The Sultan / Sultanah was appointed or handed down by the approval of three Commander Sagoe and Teuku Kadi Malikul Adil (the Supreme Mufti of the kingdom). The Sultan was only valid if he had paid "Jiname Aceh" (Aceh dowry), namely 32 pure gold, cash sixteen hundred ringgit, several tens of buffaloes and several rice gums. The area that was directly under the authority of the Sultan (Bibeueh Region) since the Sultanah Zakiatuddin Inayat Syah was the area of Darud Dunia, Mesjid Raya, Meuraxa, Lueng Bata, Pagarayée, Lamsayun, Peulanggahan, Gampông Jawa and Gampông Pande.
The highest symbol of authority held by the Sultan is symbolized in two ways, namely the keris and the stamp. Without a keris there is no employee who can claim to be in charge of carrying out the Sultan's orders. Without a stamp there is no regulation that has legal force.
List of Sultan of Aceh
Throughout the history from the beginning of its establishment until its collapse, the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam was noted to have changed sultans up to thirty times more. The following is the genealogy of the sultans / sultans who once ruled the Aceh Darussalam Sultanate:
Sulthan Ali Mughayat Syah (1496-1528)
Sulthan Salah ad-Din (1528-1537)
Sulthan Ala ad-Din Ri
ayat Shah al-Kahar (1537-1568) Sulthan Husin Ibnu Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah (1568-1575)
Young Sulthan (1575)
Sulthan Sri Nature (1575-1576)
Sulthan Zain Al-Abidin (1576-1577)
Sulthan Ala al-din mansyur syah (1576-1577)
Sulthan Buyong or Sultan Ali Ri
ayat Syah Putra (1589-1596) Sulthan Alaudin Ri`ayat Syah Said Al-Mukammal Ibnu (1596-1604)
Sulthan Ali Riayat Syah (1604-1607)
Sulthan Iskandar Muda Johan Heroes of Meukuta Alam (1607-1636)
Sulthan Iskandar Tsani (1636-1641)
Sulthanah (Ratu) Tsafiatu 'ddin Taj' Al-Alam / Princess Sri Alam (1641-1675)
Sulthanah (Ratu) Naqi al-Din Nur Alam (1675-1678)
Sulthanah (Ratu) Zaqi al-Din Inayat Syah (1678-1688)
Sulthanah (Ratu) Kamalat Sayah Zinat al-Din (1688-1699)
Sulthan Badr al-Alam Syarif Hasyim Jamal al-Din (1699-1702)
Sulthan Perkasa Alam Syarif Lamtui (1702-1703)
Sulthan Jamal al-Alam Badr al-Munir (1703-1726)
Sulthan Jauhar al-Alam Amin al-Din (1726)
Sulthan Syams al-Alam (1726-1727)
Sulthan Ala al-Din Ahmad Syah (1723-1735)
Sulthan Ala al-Din Johan Syah (1735-1760)
Sulthan Mahmud Syah (1760-1781)
Sulthan Badr al-Din (1781-1785)
Sulthan Sulaiman Syah (1785-1791)
Sulthan Alauddin Muhammad Daud Syah (1791-1795)
Sulthan Ala al-Din Jauhar Alam Syah (1795-1815)
Sulthan Syarif Saif al-Alam (1815-1818)
Sulthan Ala al-Din Jauhar Alam Syah (1818-1824)
Sulthan Muhammad Syah (1824-1838)
Sulthan Sulaiman Syah (1838-1857)
Sulthan Mansyur Syah (1857-1870)
Sulthan Mahmud Syah (1870-1874)
Sulthan Muhammad Daud Syah (1874-1903)
(Note: Aceh's 29th and 31st Sulthan are the same person)
The device of the Sultan's government sometimes experienced differences in each time. Here are the governing bodies of the Sultanah period in Aceh:
Rong Sari Hall, which is an institution led by the Sultan himself, whose members consist of Hulubalang Empat and Ulama Tujuh. This institution is in charge of making plans and research.
Balai Majlis, the People's Court, which is an institution headed by Kadli Maiikul Adil, which has seventy-three members, such as the Society Representative Council
Balai Gading, which is an institution led by Wazir Mu'adhdham Orang Kaya Admiral of the Prime Minister Series, such as the Council of Ministers or the Cabinet if now, including nine Majlis members of the People's Court who are appointed.
Balai Furdhah, which is an institution that deals with economic matters, which is headed by a vizir who has the title of Minister of the State of Paduka, such as the Ministry of Trade.
Balai Laksamana, which is the institution that deals with matters concerning the army, which is headed by a vizir who holds the title of Admiral Amirul Harb, approximately the Department of Defense.
-Balai Majlis of the Court, which is the institution that manages the matters of the judiciary / court, which is led by a vizir who has the King Series Commander in Chief of the Vizier Mizan, like the Department of Justice.
- Baitul Mal Hall, which is the institution that deals with matters of financial and state treasury, which is headed by a vizir who has the title Orang Kaya Seri Maharaja Bendahara Raja Wazir Dirham, such as the Ministry of Finance.
In addition there are various high-ranking Sultanate officials including
Shahbandar, taking care of trading problems at the port
Teuku Kadhi Malikul Adil, a kind of high judge.
Wazir Seri Maharaja Mangkubumi, namely officials who take care of all Hulubalang; like the duties of the Minister of the Interior.
Wazir Seri Maharaja Gurah, namely officials who take care of results and forest development affairs; like the task of the Minister of Forestry.
Teuku Keurukon Katibul Muluk, namely the official who is in charge of the affairs of the state secretariat including the official author of the sultanate's letter, with his complete title Wazir Rama Setia Kerukoen Katibul Muluk, as is the duty of the Secretary of State.
Ulèëbalang & Regional Division
the territory of the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam
The territory of the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam around the 14th and 15th centuries AD
At the time of the Kingdom of Aceh there were already several kingdoms such as Peureulak, Pasée, Pidie, Teunom, Daya, and others who were already standing. Besides this kingdom there are other free areas governed by small kings. During Sultan Iskandar Muda's time all these regions were integrated with the Aceh Sultanate and named Nanggroe, equated with three core areas of the Sultanate called Aceh Besar. Each of these regions is led by Ulèëbalang. During the time of Sultanah Zakiatuddin Inayat Syah (1088 - 1098 H = 1678 - 1688 AD) with Kadi Malikul Adil (Mufti Agung) Tgk. Shaykh Abdurrauf As-Sinkily carried out regional division reforms.
The kingdom of Aceh is divided into three federations and autonomous regions. The form of the federation was called Sagoe and his head was called the Commander of Sagoe. Here are the three facets (Lhée Sagoe):
Sagoe XXII Mukim, whose Head of Sagoenya has the title Sri Muda Perkasa Commander in Chief of Polem Wazirul Azmi. Except being the head of the region, he was also appointed as Wazirud Daulah (Minister of State).
Sagoe XXV Mukim, whose Sagoe Head has the title Sri Setia Ulama Kadli Malikul 'Alam. Except for being the Head of Region, he was also appointed as Chairman of the Royal Ulema Council.
Sagoe XXVI Mukim, whose Sagoenya Head has the title Sri Imeum Muda Commander Wazirul Uzza. Except for being the Head of Region, he was also appointed as Wazirul Harb (Minister of War Affairs).
In each Sagoe there is a Village. Each village has a Meunasah. Then the gampong formed Mukim with one mosque to perform Friday prayers according to the Shafi'i school. Except for these 3 Sagoe regions, all regions have wide autonomous rights.
Ulèëbalang, who was given the right to manage non-autonomous regions of Lhée Sagoe, was theoretically the sultan's official who was given Sarakata's appointment with Cap Sikureueng. But the fact on their field is independence. Indeed, the Sultan of Aceh cannot control all Ulèëbalang who have become officials in the interior. With this weak control, they gradually refused to submit and heed the Sultan's authority. They began trading with foreign traders in their own ports. The merchants involved in foreign trade do not want to deposit it with the Sultan's officers, but deposit it directly to Ulèëbalang.
It is also emphasized in the sarakata that Ulèëbalang is bound in an oath which has the following contents:
For the sake of Allah, we are all Aceh's khadam rulers, and all of us who are in charge of each level are in charge, big small, east west, tunong, all of us, we are loyal to Allah and the Apostle, and we are all loyal to Islam, following the Shari'a of the Prophet Muhammad, and we all obey our kings faithfully by following his orders for the rights, and we all love the land of Aceh, defending against the enemy, unless there is a problem, and we all love this to all people by holding the mandate of the property of the person who has been entrusted by the owner. So if all of us who have sworn this betrayed by changing the promise as we have agreed in our oath of all this, by Allah we can all curse
Allah and Rasul, from all of us to our grandchildren and grandchildren from generation to generation, can divorce and fight, refute accusations and look for any weapons in any form. Wassalam.
Oath of Ulee Balang
The oath document was then kept by Wazir Rama Setia as the Secretary of the Kingdom of Aceh, Said Abdullah at Meuleuk, which was then hereditary by his descendants to this day, specifically for the people included in his authority, in this case he may appoint a Kadi / judge to help him. As a conclusion, if Ulée Balang fails to carry out his duties according to God's laws, he will lose the confidence of his superiors. At the end of the sarakata it was recommended that the Uleebalang establish five daily prayers, perform Friday prayers, issue charity, build mosques and other places of worship, establish dayah, and if the power of pilgrimage is done.
Territory of Power
Regions that were part of the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam's territory, from the beginning to mainly thanks to Sultan Iskandar Muda's contribution, included, among other things, almost all of Aceh, including Tamiang, Pedir, Meureudu, Samalanga, Peusangan, Lhokseumawe, Kuala Pase, and Jambu Aye. In addition, the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam also succeeded in conquering all the countries around the Straits of Malacca including Johor and Malacca, although later the triumph of the government of the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam under Sultan Iskandar Muda began to decline after the attack on Malacca in 1629.
In addition, countries in the east of Malaya, such as Haru (Deli), Batu Bara, Natal, Paseman, Asahan, Tiku, Pariaman, Salida, Indrapura, Siak, Indragiri, Riau, Lingga, to Palembang and Jambi. The territory of the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam still extends and controls the entire West Coast of Sumatra to Bengkulen (Bengkulu). Not only that, the Aceh Darussalam Sultanate was even able to conquer Pahang, Kedah, and Patani. The division of the territory of the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam during Sultan Iskandar Muda's time is described as follows:
- Aceh Raja Area
Divided into three Sagoi (the size of the administrative area which is roughly equivalent to the sub-district), each of which is headed by a head with the title Commander Sagoe, namely:
Sagoe XXII Mukim,
Sagoe XXV Mukim
Sagoe XXVI Mukim.
Below each of the Sagoe Commander there are several Uleebalangs with an area consisting of several Mukim (the size of an administrative area which is roughly equivalent to the kelurahan / village). Under the Uleebalang there are several Mukim led by a head who holds the title Imeum. Mukim consists of several villages, each of which is headed by a head with the title Keutjhi.
- Outer Region of Aceh Raja
This area is divided into Uleebalang areas led by a head who holds the Uleebalang Keutjhi title. The areas under it are regulated in the same way as the regional rules that apply in the Aceh Raja Region.
- Stand-alone Regions
Within the territory of the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam, there are also regions that are not included in the scope of the Aceh King Region or the Outer Aceh King Region. The regions that were established were ordered by the uleebalang to submit to the Sultan of Aceh Darussalam (hasjmy, 1961: 3)
the currency of the Islamic kingdom of Aceh Darussalam
Aceh Darussalam sultanate currency
Aceh has a lot of commodities traded, including:
Kerosene from Deli,
Sulfur from Pulau Weh and Mount Seulawah,
Kapur from Singkil,
Lime Barus and menyan from Barus.
Gold on the west coast,
Silk in Banda Aceh.
In addition, in the capital there are also many goldsmiths, copper, and manufacturers who process raw materials into finished goods. While Pidie is a rice barn for the sultanate. But among all that is the leading commodity to be exported is pepper.
The largest production occurred in 1820. According to Penang estimates, Aceh's export value reached 1.9 million Spanish dollars. Of this amount of $ 400,000 brought to Penang, a $ 1 million was transported by American traders from the pepper area on the west coast. The rest is transported by Indian, French and Arabic merchant ships. The pepper center is located on the west coast, namely Rigas, Teunom, and Meulaboh.
Gunongan and Kandang (Tomb) Sultan Iskandar Tsani.
There are not many inheritance buildings left in Aceh. The Inner Palace of Darud Donya was burned during the Aceh - Dutch war. Now, the core part of the Inner Palace of Darud Donya which is the residence of the Sultan of Aceh has changed to Kraton Meuligoe which was used as the Pedopo of the Governor of Aceh. It should be noted that during the Sultanate the building of stone was forbidden because it was feared that it would become a fortress against the Sultan. In addition, the current Baiturrahman Grand Mosque is not the actual architecture because the original was burned during the Aceh - Dutch War. Death
architecture during the sultanate period that can still be seen to date includes Fort Indra Patra, Old Indrapuri Mosque, Pinto Khop, Leusong and Gunongan along with the vast Ghairah Park in the center of Banda Aceh City.
Like other regions in Sumatra, several stories and legends are arranged in the form of saga. The famous saga is Hikayat Malem Dagang who tells the story of the heroic hero Malem Dagang in the setting of the Malacca invasion by the Aceh Navy. Others are Bhikayat Malem Diwa, the saga of Banta Beuransah, Gajah Tujoh Ulee, Cham Nadiman, the saga of Pocut Muhammad, the story of the War of Goempeuni, the saga of Habib Hadat, the story of Abdullah Hadat and the saga of Prang Sabi. 
One of the most famous literary works is Bustanus Salatin (park of kings) by Shaykh Nuruddin Ar-Raniry besides Taj al-salatin (1603), Sulalat al-Salatin (1612), and Hikayat Aceh (1606-1636). In addition to Ar-Raniry, there is also a great Acehnese poet, Hamzah Fansuri, with his works including Asrar al-Arifin (The Secret of the Wise Man), Sharab al-Asyikin (The Drink of All Enthusiasts), Zinat al-Muwahidin (Jewelry of All Enforcing People ), Syair Si Pingai, Syair Si Burung Pungguk, Syair Sidang Fakir, Syair Dagang and Syair Perahu.
Acehnese clerics were heavily involved in works in religious fields that were widely used in Tengga Asia. Shaykh Abdurrauf published a translation of Tafsir Alqur'an Anwaarut Tanzil Wa Asrarut Takwil, written by Abdullah bin Umar bin Muhammad Shirazi Al Baidlawy into jawi.
Then there was Shaykh Daud Rumy published the Masailal Minutes Muhtadin li Ikhwanil Muhtadi who was the introductory book on the dayah until now. Shaykh Nuruddin Ar-Raniry wrote at least 27 books in Malay and Arabic. The most famous is Sirath al-Mustaqim, the most complete book of fiqh in Malay.
Military Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam
Military depiction of the Aceh Darussalam sultanate
Some notes from the West, one of which was written by C.R. Boxer, said that by the year 1530 the Aceh Darussalam Sultanate's war fleet had received a complete and up-to-date war. In fact, the Portuguese historian himself, Fernao Loper de Costanheda, said that the Sultan of Aceh (Ali Mughayat Syah) received more cannons than the Portuguese fort in Malacca himself. In addition, according to other Westerners, Veltman, one of the most valuable spoils from Samudera Pasai which was successfully brought home by Sultan Ali Mughayat Syah was a large bell which was later named "Cakra Dunia". Historic bells were a gift from Admiral Cheng Ho to King Samudera Pasai when the great commander of the Chinese Empire visited Pasai at the beginning of the 15th century (Said a, 1981: 168).
During the time of Sultan Selim II of the Ottoman Turks, several technicians and weapons makers were sent to Aceh. Furthermore, Aceh then absorbed this capability and was able to produce its own brass cannons.
Writer: Denise All
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