From 1901 to the present day ... three women have won the Nobel Prize in Physics

in steempress •  21 days ago

In the history of the Nobel Prize in Physics only three women, from 1901 to today, have been able to win and under the same conditions, that is, sharing the prize with two gentlemen, on October 2, the Triad announcement was made winner

The first woman to win a Nobel Prize in Physics was Marie Sklodowska-Curie, universally called Marie Curie, of Polish origin, naturalized French. She was born on November 7, 1867. Her father a Mathematics-Physics Teacher and her mother a Piano Teacher.
By the time in Poland it was not allowed for women to go to university. For this reason, Marie Curie moved to Paris, entered La Soborna to study and graduated in Physics and Mathematics.
This same year she meets Pierre Curie who was a Physics Teacher and they work together in the laboratories, the next year they get married.
They carried out investigations with radioactive elements, especially with uranium. From these investigations they manage to isolate several radioactive elements based on a concentration of different elements of the pitchblende, one of these is called the polonium and the other the radius. A few months later Marie Curie manages to obtain a gram of radio chloride. Marie Curie and her husband Pierre agree to present their research to the world without patenting it.
In 1903, together with her husband and Henri Becquerel, she was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for her discoveries and research on radioactive elements. In the year 1906 Marie Widowed. Her first class at the University caused great anticipation, as she was the first woman to teach at the Sorbonne University, founded 650 years ago. Always a pioneer in her walk.
In 1910, Marie Curie obtained barely one gram of radio chloride. The following year, in 1911, she received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in recognition of his services in advancing Chemistry by the discovery of radio and polonium elements, the isolation of radio and the study of nature and compounds of this element.
Marie Curie was the first person to obtain two Nobel prizes in two different fields, also the first woman to obtain a chair at the Sorbonne University. Marie Curie died in France on July 4, 1934, due to aplastic anemia, probably as a result of radiation to which she was exposed in her work.
A year later, in 1935, her eldest daughter, Irène Joliot-Curie, also won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for her discovery of artificial radioactivity.


Henri Becquerel - Marie Curie - Pierre Curie
(R1), (R2)

Of Germanic origin, she was in USA nationalized. She was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics, in 1963, for her studies on the structure of atomic nuclei.

She studied Mathematics at the University of Göttingen. After finishing her studies, attended a conference in 1927 that attracted her interest to the field of incipient quantum physics, entering to work on the atomic spectra under the direction of Max Born. In 1930, she married with Joseph Mayer, the USA nacionality. She moved to her husband's country and entered to work at John Hopkins University. There, Maria Goeppert-Mayer got a job of very low category with "one of the only two people who would work in the center with a woman", her own husband. Her work on molecular spectra attracted the attention of Fermi, who invited the spouses to join him at Columbia University, only offered a remunerated position to Joseph Mayer. Maria Goeppert-Mayer continued to investigate, as "unpaid volunteer" with the spectra of atoms heavier than Uranium, which had just been discovered. She got a certain prestige. Led, at the beginning of World War II, a team of fifteen scientists. With this team she elaborated a method of obtaining the isotope 235U from uranium haxafluoride.

In 1945, they moved again to collaborate with Fermi at the Institute of Nuclear Studies, in Chicago, where, again, she received no compensation. She was fifty-three years old and had not yet received a salary or been recognized as a teacher. She investigated the nuclear structures and experimentally found the sequence of magic numbers or number of nucleons that are part of the particularly stable atomic nuclei (2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82, 126), which led her to elaborate, in 1950, the nuclear theory of layers. Her theory also allows knowing that certain transuranic elements not yet discovered will be much more stable than their neighbors, depending on the number of nucleons they have.

Subsequently, she moved to the University of La Jolla, in California. In 1963, she won the Nobel Prize in Physics, jointly with Eugen Wigner and Hans Jensen, who had developed the same theory on his own. Wigner was awarded for developing a theory that explained the proton/neutron interaction. Maria Goeppert Mayer died in San Diego, California, in 1972.


Eugen Wigner - Maria Goeppert Mayer - Hans Jensen

She was born in 1959, in Guelph, Canada. She studied Physics at the McMaster University, Canada and obtained a Doctorate in Optics from the University of Rochester in the United States. From 1991 to 1992 she worked in the Laser Division of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California, doing an outstanding job in research. She is currently an Associate Professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Waterloo.

The research for which she has been recognized this year, has origin, is part of her Doctoral Thesis, 30 years ago, which she did together with Gerard Mourou. The fundamental part of her research was to stretch laser pulses in time, amplify and finally compress them. With that they discovered that if a pulse of light is compressed in time and shortened, then there is more light concentrated in a reduced space, so the intensity of the pulse increases significantly.

In 1998, she was awarded the Alfred P. Sloan Research Prize. In 1999, with the Premier's Research Excellence Award. In 2000, she received the Cottrell Scholars Award from the Research Corporation and in 2008 she was a member of the American Optical Society.

Donna Strickland shares the Nobel Prize in Physics with Frenchman Gerard Mourou for research related to "her method to generate the shortest and most intense laser pulses created by humanity". The other winner, on this occasion, was the USA research Arthur Ashkin, who was recognized for the development of "optical tweezers" and their application to biological systems(Source).


Gérard Mourou - Donna Strickland - Arthur Ashkin



Until a next publication dear fellow readers

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This is a translation of my publication Desde 1901 hasta nuestros días ... tres mujeres han ganado el Premio Nobel de Física
in Spanish

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