Types of vitamins

in #health3 years ago (edited)

Vitamins are essential for our body metabolism, but humans cannot make them by themselves, so we need to supplement them. Vitamins have different functions in our bodies by type.

Vitamins are divided into fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamin.


Vitamins A, D, E, and K are soluble in fat. So it can be absorbed into our body when we eat them with fatty foods. That's why it's found in fatty foods, liver, fish, milk, butter, vegetable oil and so on. Unlike water-soluble vitamins, they are stored in the liver or body fat when they are not in use. They can be rather toxic if we take excessive amounts.

Chemical nameDaily recommended dose for adultsDeficiency diseaseFood sources
Vitamin ARetinol Carotenoids900 µgNight blindness Hyperkeratosis KeratomalaciaLiver, carrots, sweet potato, spinach, broccoli
Vitamin DCholecalciferol Ergocalciferol10 µgRickets OsteomalaciaFish, eggs, liver, muschrooms
Vitamin ETocopherols15 mgHemolytic anemiaNuts, seeds, spinach, avocado
Vitamin KPhylloquinone Menaquinoes120 µgBleeding diathesisSpinach, cabbage, kale, soybeans

Vitamins B and C are soluble in water. Vitamin B includes thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), niacin (B3), pantothenic acid (B5), pyridoxin (B6), biotin (B7), folic acid (B9), and cobalamin (B12). Water-soluble vitamins are not stored in our body and any excess amounts of them just pass through the body, so overdose intake of them is not toxic but useless as well. They are largely contained in grains, vegetables, fruits and so on. Water-soluble vitamins are usually destroyed when they are cooked or exposed to the air.

Chemical nameDaily recommended dose for adultsDeficiency diseaseFood sources
Vitamin B3Niacin16 mgPellagraTurkey, chicken, peanuts, mushrooms
Vitamin B6Pyridoxine100 mgAnemia
Peripheral neuropathy
Turkey, beef, tuna, avocado
Vitamin B9Folate400 µgMegaloblastic anemia Neural tube defects for fetusBeans, asparagus, avocado, broccoli
Vitamin B12Cobalamin2.4 µgPernicious anemiaFish, shellfish, milk, cheese, egg
Vitamin CAscorbic acid90 mgScurvyFruits and vegetables


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I did not know that water soluble vitamins are usually destroyed when cooked or when exposed to air.

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