Because each of these sciences only examines a part of all human existence, not making the whole human existence as the object of study or object of research.
Psychology makes human behaviour as the object of study. Anthropology makes the behaviour of a human group or culture to be the object of study. Neurology makes the human nerve function as the object of study and Biology make human organs as objects of study.
On this occasion, I described trying to uncover the mystery of "who is human" philosophically or rationally by making the whole human existence an object of research.
Thus the article "Who Are Humans?" Will try to study human nature in the following way: First, word study. Human nature will be sought through etymology or the meaning of human words. Second, human structure.
By examining what structures or elements are present in humans, we will find human nature. Third, human death. Life and death are a series in the course of human history.
By understanding this, we will get the meaning of who humans are. Fourth, conclusion. Based on the data obtained, this article will develop a definition of who humans are.
Because understanding or can thinking, humans are called in Latin as homo sapiens, a primate species from a group of mammals equipped with highly capable brains or in other words humans are rational animals. Intellect or intelligence is the ability to solve problems and the ability to adapt, learning from everyday life experiences.
Human intelligence is the intellectual prowess of humans, which is marked by complex cognitive feats and high levels of motivation and self-awareness. Through their intelligence, humans possess the cognitive abilities to learn, form concepts, understand, apply logic, and reason, including the capacities to recognize patterns, comprehend ideas, plan, solve problems, make decisions, retain information, and use language to communicate. Intelligence enables humans to experience and think. Wikipedia source
Intelligence possessed by humans gives it the ability to adapt to its environment or understand its existence and give it a purpose in life. So that humans don't just exist in the world, but they understand and have a purpose in their lives.
Humans in Arabic are called "people" which comes from the word Nasiya which means to forget. The problem has the basic word al-uns which means benign. So that the word "human" means having a forgetful and benign nature that broadly means that humans always adjust to the new conditions around them.
The ability to adjust to relate to how humans maintain their lives by managing the material world where there are animals, plants, minerals, etc. available in nature to meet their needs.
A philosopher named Karl Marx as quoted by Franz Magnis Suseno (Father Magnus) in his book entitled The Thought of Karl Marx (1999) shows the difference between humans and animals about their needs. If an animal is directly integrated into its life, it is different from a human who makes his life work the object of his will and consciousness.
Animals produce only what they need directly for themselves and their offspring, whereas humans produce universally free from physical needs, it only produces from the real freedom from their needs.
Humans face free from production and animals produce according to size and type of production needs, humans produce according to various types and sizes with inherent objects because humans produce according to the laws of beauty. Humans in working freely and universally.
Being free to work even if you don't feel immediate needs is universal because it can use several ways for the same purpose. On the other hand, he can deal with nature not only in the framework of meeting just one need.
Posit what they deem to be Karl Marx's theory of human nature, which they accord an important place in his critique of capitalism, his conception of communism, and his 'materialist conception of history'. Marx, however, does not refer to human nature as such, but to Gattungswesen, which is generally translated as 'species-being' or 'species-essence'. According to a note from the young Marx in the Manuscripts of 1844, the term is derived from Ludwig Feuerbach’s philosophy, in which it refers both to the nature of each human and of humanity as a whole. Wikipedia source
Therefore, according to Marx, humans are only open to aesthetic values and the essence of the difference between humans and animals is in terms of fulfilling needs. Humans find their happiness when they are free from fulfilling their needs, while animals cannot be separated from fulfilling their needs (life to meet needs).
Thus, who is human according to the study of the word "human" are as follows: human beings are intangible intelligence or intelligence material. The word intelligence comes from the Latin word Intus which means 'in' and the word Legere which means 'to read and catch'.
So that intelligence means reading dimensions in all things and capturing their deep meanings. Because human nature is intelligence-material, human needs to survive are not only material, such as eating, drinking, resting, etc., but also the need to produce something as a result of intelligence (creative).
The Human Structure
Philosophy since ancient Greece until now believes that humans are not only composed of a material or physical elements. But as humans, there is also a non-material element which is the driving force for the material element in humans. This non-material element makes man "exist" as a person (subject). Because if humans only consist of material elements, then it is called a body or has lost its "existence".
Philosophers like Descartes and Locke tried to forestall problems of perceptual illusion by distinguishing between material objects and the ideas by means of which we perceive them. Philosophers source
Likewise, human existence is never only a non-material element, without the material element. Thus, human existence in essence undoubtedly consists of non-material elements that merge with the material elements. The following is an explanation of human structure in the material and non-material elements:
The Material element
Material or physical human being called an organ is a group that has a special role and each has its own duties which are interrelated with each other. Human body organs consist of many tissues, cells, and connective tissue which help in regulating various biological systems in the body.
Human organs can be divided into heads, bodies, hands and feet. The head plays a major role in protecting the important organs in it. For that, the material element in humans is an element that appears, both outside the body and in the body.
The following is an explanation of the substantial functions and structures of human unity:
First, substantial unity has the ability to perfect itself (effective).
Second, substantial unity is a dynamic and structured unit, the first source of diverse and coordinated activities for every human being.
Third, substantial unity is something that is interior and natural.
Fourth, substantial unity has consciousness, which is something that causes, in a sense, that humans can be present to themselves.
Fifth, substantial unity is a dynamism that results in it acting and trying to realize its idea, which is something that concerns subjectivity.
Thus the non-material element in humans is invisible, but a very central element. Non-material elements provide desire (desire) that moves people to do something, and through what he (humans) to do form an identity that makes it unique.
The combination of material and non-material elements in humans makes it able to adapt in the material world so that it can achieve a perfect form in the material elements (strong body) and non-material (healthy soul)
Unlike animals, humans when just born are very weak and need time to adapt to the material world. The human body and soul must go through a process so that they can exist according to their potential. The combination of these two elements is the essence of human existence.
The brain is only the centre of the nerves that are present in the entire human body, but the substantial unity that structures and moves it. Substantial unity cannot be the 'first source' of activities such as breathing, moving, assimilating, moving, enjoying pleasure or suffering, listening, learning, making decisions, falling in love, having fun and despairing without a body which is a tool to realize activities- the activity.
Substantial unity makes humans willing and aware in full (involving material and non-material elements) that they are carrying out certain activities.
So that the combination of material and non-material elements in humans not only makes humans able to adapt to the material world by experiencing the comprehensive development of the material and non-material elements but also makes it as an individual with character or character through the activities he does
Thus the nature of human beings according to their structure is as follows: humans are material that has the ability to adapt to the world around them and have a personality that makes it unique or different from other material.