Mark T. Mitchison
The inexorable miniaturisation of technologies, the relentless drive to improve efficiency and the enticing prospect of boosting performance through quantum effects are all compelling reasons to investigate microscopic machines. Thermal absorption machines are a particularly interesting class of device that operate autonomously and use only heat flows to perform a useful task. In the quantum regime, this provides a natural setting in which to quantify the thermodynamic cost of various operations such as cooling, timekeeping or entanglement generation. This article presents a pedagogical introduction to the physics of quantum absorption machines, covering refrigerators, engines and clocks in detail.
Correlation function structure in square-gradient models of the liquid-gas interface: Exact results and reliable approximations (1906.02110v1)
Andrew O. Parry, Carlos Rascón
In a recent article, we described how the microscopic structure of density-density correlations in the fluid interfacial region, for systems with short-ranged forces, can be understood by considering the resonances of the local structure factor occurring at specific parallel wave-vectors . Here, we investigate this further by comparing approximations for the local structure factor and correlation function against three new examples of analytically solvable models within square-gradient theory. Our analysis further demonstrates that these approximations describe the correlation function and structure factor across the whole spectrum of wave-vectors, encapsulating the cross-over from the Goldstone mode divergence (at small ) to bulk-like behaviour (at larger ). As shown, these approximations are exact for some square-gradient model potentials, and never more than a few percent inaccurate for the others. Additionally, we show that they very accurately describe the correlation function structure for a model describing an interface near a tricritical point. In this case, there are no analytical solutions for the correlation functions, but the approximations are near indistinguishable from the numerical solutions of the Ornstein-Zernike equation.
Local time of diffusion with stochastic resetting (1902.00907v2)
Arnab Pal, Rakesh Chatterjee, Shlomi Reuveni, Anupam Kundu
Diffusion with stochastic resetting has recently emerged as a powerful modeling tool with a myriad of potential applications. Here, we study local time in this model, covering situations of free and biased diffusion with, and without, the presence of an absorbing boundary. Given a Brownian trajectory that evolved for units of time, the local time is simply defined as the total time the trajectory spent in a small vicinity of its initial position. However, as Brownian trajectories are stochastic --- the local time itself is a random variable which fluctuates round and about its mean value. In the past, the statistics of these fluctuations has been quantified in detail; but not in the presence of resetting which biases the particle to spend more time near its starting point. Here, we extend past results to include the possibility of stochastic resetting with, and without, the presence of an absorbing boundary and/or drift. We obtain exact results for the moments and distribution of the local time and these reveal that its statistics usually admits a simple form in the long-time limit. And yet, while fluctuations in the absence of stochastic resetting are typically non-Gaussian --- resetting gives rise to Gaussian fluctuations. The analytical findings presented herein are in excellent agreement with numerical simulations.
Exact enumeration approach to first-passage time distribution of non-Markov random walks (1906.02081v1)
Shant Baghram, Farnik Nikakhtar, M. Reza Rahimi Tabar, Sohrab Rahvar, Ravi K. Sheth, Klaus Lehnertz, Muhammad Sahimi
We propose an analytical approach to study non-Markov random walks by employing an exact enumeration method. Using the method, we derive an exact expansion for the first-passage time (FPT) distribution for any continuous, differentiable non-Markov random walk with Gaussian or non-Gaussian multivariate distribution. As an example, we study the FPT distribution of a fractional Brownian motion with a Hurst exponent that describes numerous non-Markov stochastic phenomena in physics, biology and geology, and for which the limit represents a Markov process.
Hisao Hayakawa, Satoshi Takada
A kinetic theory for a dilute gas-solid suspension under a simple shear is developed. With the aid of the corresponding Boltzmann equation, it is found that the flow curve (stress-strain rate relation) has a S-shape as a crossover from the Newtonian to the Bagnoldian for a granular suspension or from the Newtonian to a fluid having a viscosity proportional to the square of the shear rate for a suspension consisting of elastic particles. The existence of the S-shape in the flow curve directly leads to a discontinuous shear thickening (DST). This DST corresponds to the discontinuous transition of the kinetic temperature between a quenched state and an ignited state. The results of the event-driven Langevin simulation of hard spheres perfectly agree with the theoretical results without any fitting parameter. The simulation confirms that the DST takes place in the linearly unstable region of the uniformly sheared state.
Don't forget to Follow and Resteem. @arxivsanity
Keeping everyone inform.